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СОР_Биология_ОГН_10 класс_англ


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guidelines for summative assessment

Biology

(social-humanitarian)

 

 

10 grades

 

 

 

Methodical recommendations (Guidelines) are created to help the teachers in planning, organizing and conducting of summative assessment of units on the subject "Biology" for 10 grade students. Guidelines are prepared on the basis of the Subject programme and curriculum.

Tasks for summative assessment of unit will allow the teacher to determine the level of achievement of the learning objectives by the students planned for a term. In the methodological recommendations for a summative assessment tasks, assessment criteria with descriptors and marks are proposed. The possible levels of educational achievements of students (rubrics) are also described in the booklet. Tasks with descriptors and marks are given as recommendations.

Guidelines are intended for primary school teachers, school administrators, methodologists of education departments, regional and school coordinators for criteria-based assessment and other stakeholders. Resources that were used (pictures, texts, video and audio materials, etc.) in preparing the guidelines are publicly available on official Internet sites
 

CONTENT

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR TERM 1. 4

Summative assessment for the unit «Molecular biology and biochemistry». 4

Summative assessment for the unit «Cellular biology». 10

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR TERM 2. 15

Summative assessment for the unit «Transport of substances». 15

Summative assessment for the unit «Respiration». 21

Summative assessment for the unit «Excretion». 27

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR 3 TERM... 33

Summative assessment for the unit «Cell cycle». 33

Summative assessment for the unit «Laws of heredity and variation». 39

Summative assessment for the unit «Evolutionary development», «Basics of breeding», «Diversity of living organisms». 44

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR 4 TERM... 51

Summative assessment for the unit «Coordination and regulation». 51

Summative assessment for the unit «Movement», «Biomedicine and Bioinformatics». 57

Summative assessment for the unit «Biotechnology». 63

 

 

 

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR TERM 1

 

Summative assessment for the unit «Molecular biology and biochemistry»

 

Learning objectives

10.4.1.1 Explain fundamental significance of water to life on Earth

10.4.1.2 Classify carbohydrates according to their structure, composition and functions

10.4.1.3 Describe the chemical structure and functions of lipids

10.4.1.4 Classify proteins by their structure, composition and functions

10.4.1.5 Study the influence of various conditions on the structure of proteins

10.4.1.7 Describe the process of DNA replication

10.4.1.8 Distinguish the structure and functions of RNA types

10.4.1.9 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA molecules

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Explains the importance of water properties for living organisms

·         Classifies carbohydrates by their structure and properties

·         Describes the chemical structure and functions of lipids

·         Classifies proteins according to their structure

·         Explains the effect of various conditions on the structure of proteins

·         Describes the process of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid

·         Distinguishes the structure and functions of types of ribonucleic acid

·         Compares the structure of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid molecules

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1.    Living organisms can use evaporation as a cooling mechanism, as in sweating or panting in mammals. Identify two water properties associated with this phenomenon.

A.    Water as a solvent;

B.     High specific heat capacity;

C.     Water as a transport medium;

D.    Density and freezing properties;

E.     High latent heat of vaporization;

F.      High surface tension and cohesion.

 

2.        Carbohydrates are divided into three main groups shown in Figure 2.1.

A

B

C

 

Figure 2.1

(a)      State the types of carbohydrates shown in Figure 2.1.

A_________________________________________________________________________

B_________________________________________________________________________

C_________________________________________________________________________

(b)      You are provided with three unsigned test tubes, in one of them a solution of sucrose, in the remaining solutions either glucose or fructose. Your task is to determine the test tube with sucrose solution.

(i)        Name the method you will use to determine the test tube with sucrose solution.

(ii)      Explain how qualitative changes allow you to determine a sucrose solution.

3.        Figure 3.1 illustrates the structural formula and space-filling model of the phospholipid molecule.

H

I

J

K

L

M

 

 

 

 

Figure 3.1

(a)      Identify the main structural components of the phospholipid labeled H-M.

 

H

I

J

K

L

M

A

Hydrophobic head

Hydrophilic tail

Glycerol

Choline

Phosphate

Hydrophilic tail

B

Hydrophilic head

Hydrophobic tail

Choline

Phosphate

Glycerol

Fatty acid tail

C

Hydrophobic tail

Hydrophilic head

Choline

Phosphate

Choline

Hydrophilic tail

D

Hydrophilic head

Hydrophobic tail

Phosphate

Glycerol

Glycerol

Fatty acid tail

 

(b)      Describe the biological role of lipids in the life of animals living in the desert.

4.        A polypeptide or protein molecule may contain several hundred amino acids linked into a long chain. Figure 4.1 illustrates the molecular structure of proteins such as insulin, haemoglobin and myoglobin.

Insulin

Haemoglobin

Myoglobin

Figure 4.1

(a)      Identify the structural level of insulin, haemoglobin and myoglobin.

Insulin ___________________________________________________________________

Haemoglobin ______________________________________________________________

Myoglobin ________________________________________________________________

(b)      Figure 4.2 shows the dependence of rate of reaction on the temperature. Enzyme activity increases with temperature before optimal rate.

Figure 4.2

Explain why the rate of the rection drops after the optimum level.

5.        DNA is constructed from a chain of nucleotides, and the sequence of the bases in these nucleotides acts as a genetic code, determining the proteins and hence the organism’s characteristics.

(a)      Figure 5.1 illustrates the DNA replication process. On the figure 5.1 Draw a circle around the leading and lagging strands and label them.

Figure 5.1

(b)      Genes provide the instructions for making specific proteins. But a gene does not build a protein directly. The bridge between DNA and protein synthesis is RNA. Match RNA types with their characteristics and functions.

Types of RNA

Characteristics and functions

1. mRNA

A. Linear shape

B. Clover-leaf shape

C. Transcribed from DNA in nucleus

2. tRNA

D. Translate information by the ribosomes, making new polypeptide

E. Leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm

F. Brings the amino acid complementary to the anticodon

1____________________________________, 2_____________________________________.

 Compare the structure of DNA and RNA molecules. State 2 differences and one similarity.

 


 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Explains the importance of water properties for living organisms;

1

identifies two water properties associated with thermoregulation;

1

Classifies carbohydrates by their structure and properties;

2

classifies carbohydrates by their structure;

3

names the qualitative method for determining reducing sugars;

1

describes the qualitative changes that allow to determine the reducing sugars;

1

defines sucrose as reducing or non-reducing sugar;

1

associates qualitative color changes with reducing or non-reducing sugars;

1

Describes the chemical structure and functions of lipids;

3

identifies the main structural components of the phospholipid;

1

describes the biological role of lipids for animals living in the desert

1

Classifies proteins according to their structure;

4

identifies the structural level of insulin, haemoglobine and myoglobine

3

Explains the effect of various conditions on the structure of proteins;

describes the effect of temperature on protein structure;

1

associates a change in the structure of a protein with its function;

1

Describes the process of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid;

5

identifies the leading and lagging strands in the diagram;

1

Distinguishes the structure and functions of types of ribonucleic acid;

matches the RNA types with their characteristics and functions;

2

Compares the structure of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid molecules.

states 2 differences between DNA and RNA molecules;

1

states 1 similarity between DNA and RNA molecules.

1

Total marks

20

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment
for unit «Molecular biology and biochemistry»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Explains the importance of water properties for living organisms;

Experiences difficulties in explaning water properties for living organisms.

Makes mistakes in explaining water properties for living organisms.

Explains the importance of water properties for living organisms.

Classifies carbohydrates by their structure and properties;

Experiences difficulties in classifying carbohydrates by their structure and properties.

Makes mistakes in classification carbohydrates by their structure and properties.

Classifies carbohydrates by their structure and properties.

Describes the chemical structure and functions of lipids;

Experiences difficulties in describing the chemical structure and function of lipids.

Makes mistakes in describing the chemical structure and function of lipids.

Describes the chemical structure and function of lipids.

Classifies proteins according to their structure;

Experiences difficulties in classifying proteins according to their structure.

Makes mistakes in classifying proteins according to their structure.

Classifies proteins according to their structure.

Explains the effect of various conditions on the structure of proteins;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the effect of temperature on the structure of proteins.

Makes mistakes in explaining the effect of temperature on the structure of proteins.

Explains the effect of temperature on the structure of proteins.

Describes the process of replication of deoxyribonucleic acid;

Experiences difficulties in describing the process of replication of DNA.

Makes mistakes in describing the process of DNA replication.

Describes the process of DNA replication.

Distinguishes the structure and functions of types of ribonucleic acid;

Experiences difficulties in distinguishing the structure and functions of types of RNA.

Makes mistakes in distinguishing the structure and functions of types of RNA.

Distinguishes the structure and functions of types of ribonucleic acid.

Compares the structure of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid molecules.

Experiences difficulties in comparing the structure of RNA and DNA molecules.

Makes mistakes in comparing the structure of RNA and DNA molecules.

Compares the structure of RNA and DNA molecules.


Summative assessment for the unit «Cellular biology»

 

Learning objectives

10.4.2.1 Explain the features of structure and functions of cell organelles visible under the electron microscope

10.4.2.2 Establish a connection among the structure, properties and functions of the cell membrane, using the liquid crystal model

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Identifies the visible organelle on micrograph and describes its main function

·         Explains the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function

·         Identifies the two layered organelle on micrograph and describes its main function

·         Explains the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1.        Cells—the basic structural and functional units of every organism, Figure 1 shows a young plant cell.

Figure 1.1

(a)      Circle and label the organelle in Fig. 1, which is the main distinguishing feature of eukaryotic organisms.

(b)      Briefly describe the main function of the organelle you have labeled in the Fig. 1.

2.        The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is such an extensive network of membranes that it accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells. There are two distinct, though connected, regions of the ER that differ in structure and function: smooth ER and rough ER.

Figure 2.1

The main function of smooth ER is synthesis of lipids, main function of RER is synthesis of proteins. Explain how the RER function is related to its structure.

3.        Organelles in fig. 3.1 and 3.2 display similarities with bacteria that led to the endosymbiotic theory. This theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using prokaryotic cell.

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

 

(a)      Name the organelles shown in Figures 3.1 and 3.2.

Figure 3.1 _________________________________________________________________

Figure 3.2 _________________________________________________________________

(b)      Briefly describe the main functions of these organelles.

Figure 3.1 _________________________________________________________________

Figure 3.2 _________________________________________________________________

4.        The plasma membrane can be considered as the edge of life, the boundary that separates the living cell from its surroundings, and controls traffic into and out of the cell. In 1972, two scientists, Singer and Nicolson put forward a hypothesis for membrane structure. They called their model the fluid mosaic model, a simplified diagram of which is shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1

 

(a)      Label the following items on the Fig.4.1: phospholipid, cholesterol, glycoprotein, peripheral protein and integral protein molecules.

(b)      Explain why this model was called “fluid”, and why “mosaic”.

 

 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Identifies the visible organelle on micrograph and describes its main function

1

identifies cell organelle on micrograph;

1

describes the function of identified organelle;

1

Explains the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function

2

describes a feature in the structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum associated with another organelle;

1

describes the function of an organelle that is a component of the Rough ER;

1

connects the function of the organelles with the function of a rough ER;

1

Identifies the two layered organelle on micrograph and describes its main function

3

identifies two organelles in micrograph according to their structures;

2

describes main function sof identified organelles;

2

Explains the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model

4

labels the main components of cell membrane;

5

explains why cell membrane is described as being fluid;

1

explains why cell membrane is described as being mosaic.

1

Total marks

16

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Cellular biology»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Identifies the visible organelle on micrograph and describe its main function

Experiences difficulties in identifying organelle on micrograph and describing its main function.

Makes mistakes in identifying organelle on micrograph and describing its main function.

Identifies the organelle on micrograph and describes its main function.

Explains the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function

Experiences difficulties in explaining the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function.

Makes mistakes in explaining the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function.

Explains the relationship of the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum with its function.

Identifies the two layered organelle on micrograph and describe its main function

Experiences difficulties in identifying the two layered organelle on micrograph and describing its main function.

Makes mistakes in identifying the two layered organelle on micrograph and describing its main function.

Identifies the two layered organelle on micrograph and describes its main function.

Explains the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model

Experiences difficulties in explaining the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.

Makes mistakes in explaining the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.

Explains the relationship between the structure and properties of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.

Explains the feature of the structure of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model

Experiences difficulties in explaining the feature of the structure of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.

Makes mistakes in explaining the feature of the structure of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.

Explains the feature of the structure of the cell membrane using a fluid mosaic model.


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR TERM 2

Summative assessment for the unit «Transport of substances»

 

Learning objectives

10.1.3.1 Calculate the ratio of reacted surface area to volume

10.1.3.2 Explain the mechanism of passive and active transport

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Calculates the surface area to volume ratio

·         Explains the effects of sa/v ratio on the structure of organisms

·         Explains the effects of sa/v ratio on the function of organs

·         Compares the mechanisms of passive and active transport

·         Describes the mechanisms of active transport

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

1.        Speed  of diffusion depends on various factors, such as surface area to volume ratio.

Figure 1

(a)      Figure 1 shows three cubes of different volumes.

Calculate their surface area, volume and the surface area to volume ratio.

 

Cube

length of cube
(mm)

Surface area (mm2)

(length)2*6

Volume (mm3)

(length)3

Surface area:volume ratio

(SA/V)

A

1

 

 

 

B

2

 

 

 

C

4

 

 

 

(b)      Describe the effect of increasing volume on surface area to volume ratio.

2.        Despite the difference in shapes, both flatworms and roundworms have no lungs or gills and obtain oxygen through diffusion (Fig. 2.1).

.

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

(a)      Calculate the surface area, volume and the ratio SA / V of rectangular cuboids B, D, and E in Figure 2.2.

Cube

Surface area (mm2)

(length*width+length*height+width*height)*2

Volume (mm3)

length*height*width

SA/V

B

 

 

 

D

 

 

 

E

 

 

 

(b)      Explain why these worms did not evolve as spherical organisms.

3.        Diffusion has a large role in the functioning of the organs of vertebrate animals. For example, oxygen enters the blood vessels from the alveoli in the lungs by diffusion (Fig. 3.2). Therefore, the structure of organs is directly related to their function.

(a)      Identify the model of organ most effective for diffusion among the presented in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1

________________________________________________________________________

Figure 3.2

(b)      Explain how the structure of the alveoli (Fig 3.2) affects their function.

4.        Complete the following Venn diagram by writing letters with characteristics into the appropriate circles.

A.           Spends ATP

B.           Particles are transported by pump proteins

C.           Particles move through the phospholipid bilayer

D.           Moving particles from high concentration to low concentration

E.            Moving particles from low concentration to high concentration

F.            Particles are transported by channel proteins and carrier proteins

Simple diffusion

Fasilitative diffusion

Active transport

5.        The sodium potassium pump (Na+-K+ pump) is vital to numerous processes in the body , such as nerve cell signaling, heart contractions, and kidney functions. Determine the order of sequences occurring during the work of pump by completing the table below.

A.  Sodium ions bind to intracellular sites on the sodium-potassium pump.

B.  A phosphate group is transferred to the pump via the hydrolysis of ATP.

C.  Translocation of the potassium across the membrane, completing the ion exchange.

D.  The pump undergoes a conformational change, translocating sodium across the membrane.

E.   The phosphate group is released which causes the pump to return to its original conformation.

F.   The conformational change exposes potassium binding sites on the extracellular surface of the pump.

 

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

CYTOPLASM

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Calculates the surface area to volume ratio

1

calculates the surface area in different cubes;

1

calculates the volume in different cubes;

1

calculates the surface area to volume ratio in different cubes;

1

describes the effect of volume increase on surface area to volume ratio;

1

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the structure of organisms

2

calculates the surface area of rectangular cuboids;

1

calculates the volume of rectangular cuboids;

1

calculates the surface area to volume ratio of rectangular cuboids;

1

compares the SA/V ratio of cube and rectangular cuboid with equal volumes;

1

describes the relationship SA/V ratio with the rate of diffusion;

1

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the function of organs

3

identifies the most effective model of organ;

1

describes the value of SA/V ratio in the alveoli;

1

describes the effect of SA/V ratio on the rate of diffusion;

1

describes function of alveoli in respect to diffusion;

1

Compares the mechanisms of passive and active transport

4

compares characteristics of passive and active transport in Venn diagram;

3

Describes the mechanisms of active transport

5

identifies the events occurring during the operation of the sodium potassium pump in the correct sequence.

3

Total marks

19

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment
for unit «Transpot of substances»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Calculates the surface area to volume ratio in cubes

Experiences difficulties in calculating the surface area to volume ratio.

Makes mistakes in calculating the surface area to volume ratio in cubes.

Calculates the surface area to volume ratio.

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the structure of organisms;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the effects of SA/V ratio on the structure of organisms.

Makes mistakes in explaining the effects of SA/V ratio on the structure of organisms.

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the structure of organisms.

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the function of organs;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the effects of SA/V ratio on the function of organs.

Makes mistakes in explaining the effects of SA/V ratio on the function of organs.

 

Explains the effects of SA/V ratio on the function of organs.

Compares the mechanisms of passive and active transport;

Experiences difficulties in comparing the mechanisms of passive and active transport.

Makes mistakes in comparing the mechanisms of passive and active transport.

 

Compares the mechanisms of passive and active transport.

Describes the mechanisms of active transport.

Experiences difficulties in describing the mechanisms of active transport.

Makes mistakes in describing the mechanisms of active transport.

Describes the  mechanisms of active transport.


Summative assessment for the unit «Respiration»

 

Learning objectives

10.1.4.1 Describe the structure and function of ATP

10.1.4.2 Compare ATP synthase in aerobic and aerobic respiration

10.1.4.3 Describe the types of metabolism

10.1.4.4 Describe the stages of energy exchange

10.1.4.5 Establish the relationship between mitochondrial structure and cellular respiration processes

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Describes the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate

·         Compares the synthesis of atp in aerobic and anaerobic respiration

·         Describes anabolism and catabolism

·         Describes the stages of cellular respiration

·         Explains how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

1.        Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic compound that provides energy to conduct many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, and chemical synthesis. Figure 1.1 shows chemical structure of ATP.

A

B

C

Figure 1.1

(a)      Identify structural components of ATP labeled A, B, C.

A_____________________________________________________________________

B_____________________________________________________________________

C_____________________________________________________________________

(b)      Describe the structural feature of ATP which allows it to be used as energy source.

2.        Respiration is a process in which organic molecules act as a fuel. The organic molecules are broken down in a series of stages to release chemical potential energy, which is used to synthesize ATP. Figure 2.1 shows the basic scheme of cellular respiration, with the main stages and products.

Figure 2.1

 

(a)      Circle the stages of anaerobic respiration in Figure 2.1.

(b)      Match the following statements (A-H) about aerobic and anaerobic respiration in table below.

A.           Cyoplasm

B.           Low (2 ATP)

C.           CO2 and H2O

D.           High (36-38 ATP)

E.            Glycolysis, Fermentation

F.            Cytoplasm and mitochondrion

G.           Animals: Lactic acid (C3H6O3); Yeast: Ethanol (C2H5OH) + CO2

H.           Glycolysis, Link reaction, Krebs cycle, Oxydative phosphorylation

 

 

CRITERIA

ANAEROBIC

AEROBIC

Energy Yield

 

 

Products

 

 

Location

 

 

Stages

 

 

3.        Two types of metabolic reactions take place in the cell: anabolism and catabolism. Figure 3.1 shows two type of chemical reaction: hydrolysis and condensation.

A. ________________

B. ________________

Figure 3.1

(a)      Identify types of metabolic reaction in Figure 3.1.

(b)      Match the following statements (A-D) about anabolism and catabolism in table below.

A.      Typically involves reduction reaction

B.       Typically envolves oxidation reaction

C.       Uses energy to construct new bonds (endergonic)

D.      Releases energy when bonds are broken (exergonic)

 

CRITERIA

ANABOLISM

CATABOLISM

Energetics

 

 

Mechanism

 

 

 

 

4.        Match the descriptions with stages of cellular respiration.

Stage of respiration

Descriptions

A.  Glycolysis

1.      In the presence of O2, all the hydrogens (H2) are stripped off the Acetyl CoA, until there are no hydrogens left - and all that is left of the sugar is CO2 and H2O.

B.  Link reaction

2.      Electrons from Hydrogen are carried by NADH and passed down an electron transport chain to result in the production of ATP.

C.  Citric acid cycle

3.      One Glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.

D.  Oxydative phosphorylation

4.      Pyruvic Acid is shuttled into the mitochondria, where it is converted to a molecule called Acetyl CoA for further breakdown.

A _______; B _______; C _______; D _______;

5.        Mitochondria are the ‘powerplants’ of the cell – synthesising large amounts of ATP via aerobic respiration (Fig. 5). They are made of two membranes: outer membrane covers the organelle; inner membrane folds over many times and creates layered structures. The inner membrane is the site of the electron transport chain and contains the ATP synthase.

A

Figure 5.1

(a)      Name the structural component of mitochondria labeled A in Fig. 5.1.

Explain the advantages of the structure of the mitochondrial inner membrane for cellular respiration.

 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Describes the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate

1

identifies structural components of ATP;

3

describes the energy-intensive type of bonds in a molecule;

1

describes the amount of kJ released by hydrolysis of these bonds;

1

Compares the synthesis of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration

2

identifies the stages of anaerobic respiration;

1

compares the aerobic and anaerobic respiration by criteries;

2

Describes anabolism and catabolism

3

identifies types of metabolism by type of reaction;

1

compares the anabolism and catabolism by criteries;

2

Describes the stages of cellular respiration

4

correlates the stage of respiration with its appropriate description;

2

Explains how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function

 

5

identifies structural component of mitochondria;

1

states the name of the inner membrane;

1

describes how this membrane helps for more efficient cellular respiration (1);

1

describes how this membrane  helps for more efficient cellular respiration (2).

1

Total marks

17

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Respiration»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Describes the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate

Experiences difficulties in describing the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate.

Makes mistakes in describing of the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate.

Describes the structure and function of adenosine triphosphate.

Compares the synthesis of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Experiences difficulties in comparing the synthesis of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Makes mistakes in comparing the synthesis of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in terms of energy yield/products/location/stages..

Compares the synthesis of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Describes anabolism and catabolism

 

Experiences difficulties in describing anabolism and catabolism.

Makes mistakes in describing of the anabolism and catabolism.

Describes the anabolism and catabolism.

Describes the stages of cellular respiration

Experiences difficulties in describing of the stages of cellular respiration.

Makes mistakes in describing the stages of cellular respiration.

Describes the stages of cellular respiration.

Explains how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function

Experiences difficulties in explaining how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function.

Makes mistakes in how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function.

Explains how structure of mitochondrion is adapted to its function.


Summative assessment for the unit «Excretion»

 

Learning objectives

10.1.5.1 Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in regulation of water levels

10.1.5.2 Explain the dialysis mechanism

10.1.5.3 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation and dialysis

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Describes influence of water potential of blood to concentration of urine

·         Describes influence of adh to cell membrane permeability

·         Explains the mechanisms of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

·         Compares the procedures of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

·         Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension,

Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

1.        Osmoregulation is the control of the water potential of body fluids. This regulation is an important part of homeostasis and involves hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland and kidneys. The water potential of the blood is constantly monitored by osmoreceptors. Osmoreceptors affect the production of ADH, and consequently it affects the concentration of urine.

Identify the mechanism of operation of this system.

 

Water potential

ADH

Concentration of urine

Volume of urine

A

increase

not released

decrease

increase

B

increase

released

increase

decrease

C

decrease

released

decrease

increase

D

decrease

not released

increase

decrease

 

2.        Molecules of ADH carried by blood all over the body.

Figure 2.1

(a)      (i) Name the part of the nephron that is the target of ADH.

ADH binds to receptors in the cell surface membrane of the target cells. This activates a moving aquaporins to the cell surface membrane.

(ii) State the function of aquaporins.

(b)   Two test tubes with urine samples were brought to the laboratory. The color of sample No. 1 is lighter, that is, it is less concentrated. Sample No. 2 is darker, indicating a higher concentration. Comparison of samples with a graph of urine concentration (Figure 2.2) showed that sample No. 1 is close to level 2-hydrated, and sample No. 2 is close to level 6-dehydrated.

Hydrated

Dehydrated

Extremely dehydrated

Figure 2.2

Identify the owner of which sample has more ADH in the blood, explain your answer.

3.        Dialysis therapy includes hemodialysis to purify the blood using an artificial kidney (dialyzer) and peritoneal dialysis to purify the blood through one's own abdominal cavity (peritoneal membrane).The mechanism of peritoneal dialysis is shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1

(a)      Explain which properties of the abdominal cavity and peritoneal membrane allow it to perform the function of the kidney.

 

(b)      Figure 3.2 illustrates the mechanism of hemodialysis. The mechanism of hemodialysis is similar to the work of the kidney, so it is sometimes called an artificial kidney.

Figure 3.2

Describe the function of tubing (Fig. 3.2) in the hemodialysis machine.

4.        Figure 4 demonstrates hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis procedures.

Figure 4

 

(a)      Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of using peritoneal dialysis.

Advantage______________________________________________________________

Disadvantage____________________________________________________________

(b)      Describe one advantage and one disadvantage using hemodialysis.

Advantage______________________________________________________________

Disadvantage____________________________________________________________

5.        According to the Global database on donation and transplantation in 2016, 89,823 kidney transplantations were performed. Transplantation saves thousands of lives, but it has both advantages and risks.

We will simulate the situation that you are a surgeon, and a patient who has problems with kidney function has come to you. You need to explain to the patient all the features of a kidney transplant. Describe two advantage and two disadvantage of kidney transplantation.

Advantages_________________________________________________________________

Disadvantages_______________________________________________________________


 

 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Describes influence of water potential of blood to concentration of urine

1

chooses the option, wich identidies the mechanism of water regulation in the body;

1

Describes influence of ADH to cell membrane permeability

2

names the part of the nephron that is the target of ADH;

1

states the function of aquaporins;

1

identifies the owner with the highest amount of ADH in the blood;

1

explains own answer through outlining the mechanism of work of ADH;

1

Explains the mechanisms of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

3

states the property of the abdominal cavity which allows it to perform the function of the kidney;

1

explains the reason of why the stated property allows abdominal cavity perform the function of the kidney;

1

states the property of the peritoneal membrane which allows it to perform the function of the kidney;

1

explains the reason of why the stated property allows peritoneal membrane perform the function of the kidney;

1

describes the properties of tubing membranes;

1

describes the composition of the blood before tubing;

1

describes the composition of the dialyzing solution after tubing;

1

Compares the procedures of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

4

describes one advantage of using peritoneal dialysis;

1

describes one disadvantage of using peritoneal dialysis;

1

describes one advantage of using hemodialysis;

1

describes one disadvantage of using hemodialysis;

1

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation

5

describes an advantages of kidney transplantation (1);

1

describes an advantages of kidney transplantation (2);

1

describes a disadvantages of kidney transplantation (1);

1

describes a disadvantages of kidney transplantation (2).

1

Total marks

20

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Excretion»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Describes influence of water potential of blood to concentration of urine;

Experiences difficulties in choosing the option, wich identidies the mechanism of water regulation in the body.

Makes mistakes in choosing the option, wich identidies the mechanism of water regulation in the body

Chooses the option, wich identidies the mechanism of water regulation in the body

Describes influence of ADH to cell membrane permeability;

Experiences difficulties in describing the influence of ADH to cell membrane permeability.

Makes mistakes in naming the part of the nephron that is the target of ADH/stating the function of aquaporins/identifying the owner with the highest amount of ADH in the blood/explaining own answer through outlining the mechanism of work of ADH

Describes influence of ADH to cell membrane permeability.

Explains the mechanisms of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the mechanisms of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Makes mistakes in stating the property of the abdominal cavity/explaining own answer /stating the property of the peritoneal membrane/explaining own answer/describinf the properties of tubing membrane/describing the composition of the blood before tubing/describing the composition of the dialyzing solution after tubing

Explains the mechanisms of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Compares the procedures of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis;

Experiences difficulties in comparing the procedures of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Makes mistakes in describing an advantage/disadvantage of using peritoneal dialysis/describing an advantage/disadvantage of using hemodialysis

Compares the procedures of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation.

Experiences difficulties in discussing the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation.

Makes mistakes describing advantages of kidney transplantation №1/2/describing disadvantages of kidney transplantation №1/2

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplantation.


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR 3 TERM

Summative assessment for the unit «Cell cycle»

 

Learning objectives

10.2.2.1 Explain the features of gamete formation in plants and animals

10.2.2.2 Explain the the relationship between uncomtrolled cell divison and the onset of tumors

10.2.2.3 Explain the ageing process

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Describes the features of the formation of gametes in animals

·         Describes the features of the formation of gametes in plants

·         Explains the relationship of uncontrolled cell division with the formation of tumors

·         Describes the ageing theories

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension,

Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. Figure 1.1 shows the general scheme of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Primary oocyte

Primary spermatocyte

Polar bodies

Spermatids

Ootid

Secondary oocyte

Secondary spermatocyte

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.1

(a) Identify the ploidy of the following stages of gamete formation.

 

Primary oocyte

Primary spermatocyte

Ootid

Polar bodies

Spermatids

A

2n

n

n

2n

n

B

2n

2n

n

N

n

C

2n

2n

n

2n

n

D

2n

2n

2n

N

n

 

 

(b) (i) Figure 1.2 demonstrates the formation of gametes in male and female.

A

B

C

Figure 1.2

Identify processes A, B, C presented in Figure 1.2.

A _____________________________________________________________________________

B _____________________________________________________________________________

C _____________________________________________________________________________

(ii) Describe two differences between the formation of gametes in males and females presented in Figure 1.2.

2. Figure 2.1 shows the formation of gametes in plants.

Figure 2.1

(a) Identify the ploidy of the following stages of gamete formation in plants, using information in figure 2.1.

 

Microsporocyte

Microspores

Megasporocyte

Megaspores

Egg cell

Sperm

A

2n

2n

2n

2n

n

n

B

2n

n

2n

n

n

n

C

2n

n

2n

n

2n

2n

D

n

2n

n

2n

n

n

 

(b) Describe two differences between the formation of male and female gametes in plants  presented in figure 2.1.

3. Figure 3.1 shows the stages of   cancer

Figure 3.1

(a) Figure 3.1 shows that carcinogens cause mutations of oncogenes. Name two carcinogens.

 (b) Define the term “oncogene”.

 (c)  Explain how uncontrolled cell division leads to cancer.

4. Modern biological theories of aging in humans currently fall into two main categories: programmed and damage (error) theories.

Describe the features of the programmed ageing theory.


 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in animals;

1

identifies the ploidy of the stages of gamete formation;

1

identifies the general processes of animal gamete formation;

3

describes two differences between the formation of gametes in males and females;

2

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in plants;

2

identifies the ploidy of the stages of gamete formation in plants;

1

describes two differences between the formation of  male and female gamete in plants;

2

Explains the relationship of uncontrolled cell division with the formation of tumors;

3

 

names two carcinogens;

2

defines the term “oncogene”;

1

describes the effects of disruption of tumor suppressor genes on cell life;

1

explains how uncontrolled cell division leads to cancer;

1

Describes the ageing theories.

4

defines the features of  programmed ageing theory.

2

Total marks

16

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Cell cycle»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in animals;

Experiences difficulties in describing the features of the formation of gametes in animals.

Makes mistakes in defining the ploidy of the stages of gamete formation/identifying the general processes of animal gamete formation/describing two differences between the formation of gametes in males and females

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in animals.

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in plants;

Experiences difficulties in describing the features of the formation of gametes in plants.

Makes mistakes in identiifying the ploidy of the stages of gamete formation in plants/ describing  two differences between the formation of  male and female gamete in plants

Describes the features of the formation of gametes in plants.

Explains the relationship of uncontrolled cell division with the formation of tumors;

Experiences difficulties in explaining of the relationship of uncontrolled cell division with the formation of tumors.

Makes mistakes in naming two carcinogens/defining the term “oncogene”/explaining how uncontrolled cell division leads to cancer

Explains the relationship of uncontrolled cell division with the formation of tumors.

Describes the ageing theories.

Experiences difficulties in describing   the ageing theories.

Makes mistakes in  describing the features of the programmed ageing theory.

Describes the ageing theories.


Summative assessment for the unit «Laws of heredity and variation»

 

Learning objectives

10.2.4.1 Investigate the regularities of phenotypic plasticity

10.2.4.2 Apply the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex in solving problems

10.2.4.3 Compare the interaction of allelic and nonallelic genes

10.2.4.4 Study the causes of mutagenesis and types of mutations

10.2.4.5 Describe chromosomal human diseases associated with chromosome number anomalies (autosomal and sex)

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Investigates  phenotypic variation

·         Define the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and offspring using  the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex

·         Describes the difference between the interaction allelic and nonallelic genes

·         Describes the types of gene mutations

·         Describes causes of human chromosomal disorders associated with aneuploidy

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. Table 1.1 Data on height of  women.

Height, cm

145

150

155

160

165

170

175

180

185

Number

36

179

588

1185

1397

1029

443

128

11

Plot a graph of the variation curve, using the data from the table 1.1

2. The gene for colorblindness is carried on the X chromosome and is recessive. A woman who is a carrier for colorblindness marries a man without color blindness.

Define the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and offspring using the Punnet square

3. Describe the differences between the interaction of  allelic and nonallelic genes.

 

Interaction of allelic genes

Interaction of nonallelic genes

 

 

 

 

4. Figure 4.1 shows the change of a single nucleotide in the DNA’s template strand which leads to the production of an abnormal protein .

Normal β-globin DNA

Mutant β-globin DNA

Figure 4.1

(a) Name type of point mutation showed on Figure 4.1.

(b) Table 4.1 presents the type of mutation that changes the sequence of nucleotides, but it does not change the encoded amino acid.

Table 4.1

 

Normal β-globin DNA

Mutant β-globin DNA

Partial DNA Sequence of Beta Globin gene:

C C T    G A G    G A G

G G A   C T C     C T C

C C T    G A A    G A G

G G A   C T T     C T C

Partial RNA Sequence:

C C U   G A G    G A G

C C U   G A A    G A G

Partial Amino Acid Sequence of Beta Globin:

Pro – Glu – Glu

Pro – Glu – Glu

Name type of point mutation showed on table 4.1

5. Down syndrome is a genetic condition that occurs when there is an extra copy of a specific chromosome.

(a) Describe causes of such chromosomal disorders

(b)Define the term “aneuploidy”

 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Investigates  phenotypic variation

1

draws a graph with a pencil;

1

represents independent variable, height of women, on the x-axis;

1

represents dependent variable, number of women, on the y-axis;

1

labels the axis of the graph with the indication of units;

1

Define the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and offspring using  the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex

2

indicates genotypes of parents and gametes;

1

draws the Punnett square;

1

indicates the ratio of genotypes of  offsprings;

1

indicates the ratio of phenotypes of offsprings;

1

Describes the difference between the interaction allelic and nonallelic genes

3

describes the features of the interaction of  allelic genes;

1

describes the features of the interaction of  allelic genes;

1

Describes the types of gene mutations;

4

names the type of point mutation of the DNA that leads to a change sequenceof the amino acid;

1

names the type of point mutation of the DNA that does not change sequence of the amino acid;

1

Describe causes of human chromosomal disorders associated with aneuploidy.

5

describes causes of  chromosomal disorders;

2

define the term “aneuploidy”.

1

Total marks

15

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Laws of heredity and variation»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Investigates  phenotypic variation

Experiences difficulties in investigating phenotypic variation

Makes mistakes in plotting graph about the patterns of phenotypic variation.

Investigates  phenotypic variation

Define the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and offspring using  the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex

Experiences difficulties in defining the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents  and offspring, using the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex

Makes mistakes in indicating  genotypes of parents and gametes/ drawing the Punnet square/ indicating the

Define the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents and offspring using  the cytological bases of dihybrid crosses, inheritance coupled with sex.

Describes the difference between the interaction allelic and nonallelic genes

Experiences difficulties in describing the difference between the interaction of allelic and nonallelic genes.

Makes mistakes in describing  the features of the interaction of  allelic genes / describes the features of the interaction of  nonallelic genes

Describes the difference between the interaction allelic and nonallelic genes

Describes the types of gene mutations;

Experiences difficulties in describing the types of gene mutations.

Makes mistakes in  naming the type of point mutation of the DNA that changes sequence of the amino acid / naming the type of point mutation of the DNA that does not change sequence of the amino acid

 

Describes the types of gene mutations.

Describe causes of human chromosomal disorders associated with aneuploidy

Experiences difficulties in describing the  causes of human chromosomal disorders associated with aneuploidy.

Makes mistakes indescribing the causes of chromosomal disorders/ defining the term “aneuploidy”.

Describes causes of human chromosomal disorders associated with aneuploidy.


Summative assessment for the unit «Evolutionary development», «Basics of breeding», «Diversity of living organisms»

 

Learning objectives

10.2.6.1 Explain the interaction between hereditary variability and evolution

10.2.6.2 Study the evolution evidence

10.2.6.3 Classify the main mechanisms of speciation

10.2.6.4 Name the anthropogenesis stages

10.2.5.1 Study the ways to improve crop plants and animals using selection methods

10.1.1.2 Compare cladograms and phylogenetic trees

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Explains the relationship between genetic variation and evolution

·         Explain the evidence of evolution

·         Describes the main mechanisms of speciation

·         Describes the stages of anthropogenesis

·         Describes the ways to improve agricultural plants and animals using breeding methods

·         Applies the knowledge in construction of cladograms and phylogenetic trees

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. Genetic variation is a measure of the genetic differences that exist within a population. Populations of wild cheetahs have very low genetic diversity,because of some reasons

A

      

Figure 1.1                                                      Figure 1.2

(a) Name the effect “A” presented in Figure 1.1, which affected the reduction of the genetic diversity of cheetahs.

 (b) Describe the effect of low genetic diversity of cheetahs on their ability to adapt and evolve.

2. Give an example which explains the evidence of evolution

3. The Figure 3.1 below show a South American finch and some of the species of finches found on the Galápagos Islands. The map shows the relationship of the Galápagos Islands to the west coast of South America. There are 13 species of finches found on the Galápagos Islands. These finches have a wide variety of food sources and beak shapes. There is one genetically similar species of finch found on the South American mainland.

Figure 3.1

(a) Name the type of speciation due to which 13 island species were formed from one continental finches.

Figure 3.2

(b) Figure 3.2 demonstrates the wide variety of Darwin finches. These finches have variety of specialised beak shapes depending on their primary source of nutrition (e.g. seeds, insects, nuts, nectar).

Explain how did the new forms like Darwin finches occur

4. Figure 4.1 demonstrates the evolutionary relationships of different types of people and their distribution across the continents of the Earth.

Figure 4.1

(a) State what Homo antecessor and Homo rhodesiensis have in common with Homo erectus, using Figure 4.1

 (b) Name the continent being the ancestral home of all human species, using Figure 4.1

 (c) Explain what do the overlapping lines of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis does mean.

5. Zea mays, is also known as corn in some parts of the world. Each generation become progressively smaller and weaker after inbreeding. 

Figure 5.1 The effects of inbreeding depression in maize over eight generations.

Describe what do the farmer need in order to grow a corn that produces higher yields.

6. (a)Table 6.1 shows the amino acid sequence in human hemoglobin and 5 mammals. The sequence shown is only a small portion of the chain of 146 amino acids. The numbered columns indicate the position of each amino acid within the whole chain.

Table 6.1. The amino acid sequences of hemoglobin in humans and five other mammals.

Species

Position of each amino acid within the whole chain of haemoglobin

Total differences

87

104

105

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

Human

THR

ARG

LEU

VAL

LEU

VAL

CYS

VAL

LEU

ALA

HIS

------------

Chimp

THR

ARG

LEU

VAL

LEU

VAL

CYS

VAL

LEU

ALA

HIS

 

Gorilla

THR

LYS

LEU

VAL

LEU

VAL

CYS

VAL

LEU

ALA

HIS

 

Rhesus Monkey

GLU

LYS

LEU

VAL

LEU

VAL

CYS

VAL

LEU

ALA

HIS

 

Horse

ALA

ARG

LEU

VAL

LEU

ALA

LEU

VAL

VAL

ALA

ARG

 

Kangaroo

LYS

LYS

LEU

ILE

ILE

VAL

ILE

CYS

LEU

ALA

GLU

 

(i) Identify the amino acids differ from the amino acid sequence of human hemoglobin. And write the number of differences in the last column.

(ii) Figure 6.1 shows the phylogenetic tree in accordance with the table from 6.1.

Number of differences

 

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

H

I

J

K

L

M

Figure 6.1

Identify the sequence of mammals in Figure 6.2 with regarding to the results of Table 6.1.

 

H

I

J

K

L

M

A

Human

Chimp

Horse

Rhesus Monkey

Gorilla

Kangaroo

B

Human

Chimp

Gorilla

Rhesus Monkey

Horse

Kangaroo

C

Human

Chimp

Rhesus Monkey

Gorilla

Horse

Kangaroo

D

Human

Gorilla

Chimp

Rhesus Monkey

Horse

Kangaroo

 

(b) A cladogram is a diagram used to represent a hypothetical relationship between groups of animals.

(i) Indicate whether the characteristic is present or not, for the animals on the Table 6.2.

Table 6.2.

Animals

Cells

Legs

Antenna

Wings

2 sets of wings

Worm

 

 

 

 

 

Spider

 

 

 

 

 

Carpenter Ant

 

 

 

 

 

House fly

 

 

 

X

 

Dragonfly

 

 

 

X

X

(ii) Draw a cladogram based on the data in Table 6.2.


 

 

 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Explains the relationship between genetic variation and evolution

1

named the effect of reducing genetic diversity;

1

describes the effect of low genetic diversity on adaptation;

1

Explain the evidence of evolution

2

give the example of the evidence of evolution;

2

Describes the main mechanisms of speciation ;

3

name the type of speciation;

1

explain how do the new forms of birds occur;

2

Describes the stages of anthropogenesis;

4

state common features of different types of people;

1

name the continent being the ancestral home of all human species;

1

explain what do the overlapping lines of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis does mean;

1

Describes the ways to improve agricultural plants and animals using breeding methods.

5

describes what is needed to produce bigger yields of Zea mays;

2

Draw cladograms and phylogenetic trees

6

identify the amino acids differ from the amino acid sequence of human hemoglobin;

1

identify the sequence of mammals;

1

indicate whether the characteristic is present or not for different animals;

1

draw a cladogram.

2

Total marks

17

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment
for unit «Evolutionary development», «Basics of breeding», «Diversity of living organisms»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Explains the relationship between genetic variation and evolution;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the relationship between genetic variation and evolution.

Makes mistakes in naming the effect of reducing genetic diversity/describing the effect of low genetic diversity on adaptation .

Explains the relationship between genetic variation and evolution.

Explain the evidence of evolution

Experiences difficulties in explaining the evidence of evolution.

Makes mistakes in giving example of evidence of evolution .

Explains  the evidence of evolution.

Describes the main mechanisms of speciation;

Experiences difficulties in describing  the main mechanisms of speciation.

Makes mistakes in naming the type of speciation/explaining how do the new forms of birds occur

Describes the main mechanisms of speciation.

Describes the stages of anthropogenesis;

Experiences difficulties in describing  the stages of anthropogenesis.

Makes mistakes in stating common features of different types of people/naming of the continent being ancestral home of all human/ explaining what do the overlapping lines mean

Describes the stages of anthropogenesis.

Describes ways to improve agricultural plants and animals using breeding methods.

Experiences difficulties in describing the ways to improve agricultural plants and animals using breeding methods.

Makes mistakes in describing what is needed to produce bigger yields of Zea mays

Describes ways to improve agricultural plants and animals using breeding methods.

Draw cladograms and phylogenetic trees

Experiences difficulties in drawing caldograms and phylogenetic trees

Makes mistakes in identifying the amino acids which differ from the sequence ofhuman haemoglobin/identifying the sequence of mammals/indicating whether the characteristic is present or not/ drawing a cladogram

Draws cladograms and phylogenetic trees


SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS FOR 4 TERM

Summative assessment for the unit «Coordination and regulation»

 

Learning objectives

10.1.7.1 Study the structure and functions of the spinal cord and brain

10.1.7.2 Establish the relationship between the structure and function of synapse

10.1.7.3 Describe the reaction of mechanoreceptors (Pacini corpuscles) to stimuli

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Describes the structure and function of the spinal cord and brain

·         Explains the relationship of the structure and function of the synapse

·         Explains the reaction of mechanoreceptors to stimuli

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system which consist of the brain and spinal cord.

(a) Figure 1.1 shows the human brain in cross section.

Figure 1.1

(i)                 Identify the structural components of the brain presented in Figure 1.1

 

 

 

1

2

3

5

6

7

9

A

Hypothalamus

Corpus caloseum

Medulla oblongata

Hypothalamus

Thalamus

Pons

Cerebellum

B

Cerebrum

Corpus caloseum

Thalamus

Cerebellum

Medulla oblongata

Pons

Hypothalamus

C

Cerebrum

Corpus caloseum

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Medulla oblongata

Pons

Cerebellum

D

Hypothalamus

Corpus caloseum

Medulla oblongata

Hypothalamus

Thalamus

Pons

Cerebellum

 

(ii) Match structural component of brain with their functions.

Part of brain

 

Function

1.     Cerebrum

A.   Involved in the control of heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, swallowing, and vomiting

2.     Cerebellum

B.   A major part of the brain, controlling emotions, hearing, vision, personality and much more. It controls all voluntary actions.

3.     Medulla oblongata

C.   Controls function of pituitary gland; regulates body temperature, appetite, thirst,aggressive behavior, sex drive, and body rhythms

4.     Hypothalamus

D.   Fine tuning of complex body movements; maintenance of balance

1 __________________; 2__________________; 3__________________; 4__________________;

(b) Figure 1.2 shows a diagram of the structure of the spinal cord.

Figure 1.2

(i) Label on figure 1.2 white matter and gray matter.

(ii) State two main functions of spinal cord.

1______________________________________________________________________________

2______________________________________________________________________________

2. In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target effector cell. Figure 2.1 shows the structure of a typical chemical synapse.

Synaptic cleft

E

F

G

H

K

I

J

L

Figure 2.1

(a) Identify the structural components of the synapse labeled "E-L" in Figure 2.1.

 

E

F

G

I

L

A

Postsynaptic neurone

Presynaptic neurone

Neurotransmitter

Receptor

Ca2+ channel

B

Presynaptic neurone

Postsynaptic neurone

Neurotransmitter

Ca2+ channel

Receptor

C

Postsynaptic neurone

Presynaptic neurone

Neurotransmitter

Receptor

Ca2+ channel

D

Presynaptic neurone

Postsynaptic neurone

Neurotransmitter

Ca2+ channel

Receptor

 

(b) Explain the mechanism of transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another.

3. Figure 3.2 shows a graph of the appearance of a nerve impulse from a stimulus.

If you look at the table, it becomes noticeable that with a light pressure (-50 millivolts) the membrane potential at microelectrode Q did not change (-70), that is, the receptor did not convey the effect of touching. But with an medium touch (+30), membrane potential Q increased to +40, which suggests that a medium touch led to the emergence of a pulse.

 

Figure 3.1                                                                 Figure3.2

Table 3.1. Changes in the membrane potential due to the pressure force.

Pressure applied to the fingertip

Membrane potential at P / millivolts

Membrane potential at Q / millivolts

None

–70

–70

Light

–50

–70

Medium

+30

+40

Heavy

+40

+40

Explain the reason why a light touch did not generate a nerve impulse.

________________________________________________________________________________


 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Describes the structure and function of the spinal cord and brain;

1

identifies the structural components of the brain onthe diagram;

1

matches structural components of the brain with their functions;

4

identifies the main structural components of the spinal cord in the diagram;

1

states two main functions of spinal cord;

2

Explains the relationship of the structure and function of the synapse;

2

identifies the structural components of the synapse;

1

describes the role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in transmission of nervous impulse;

1

describes the role of Ca2+ ions in transmission of nervous impulse;

1

describes the role of neurotransmitters in transmission of nervous impulse;

1

describes the role of receptors in postsynaptic neuron to occurrence of nerve impulses;

1

Explains the reaction of mechanoreceptors to stimuli.

3

compares membrane potential of the medium stimulus with the threshold potential;

1

explains the effect of threshold potential to voltage-gated sodium channels;

1

describes the effect of voltage-gated sodium channels to the occurrence of nervous impulses.

1

Total marks

16

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Coordination and regulation»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Describes the structure and function of the spinal cord and brain;

Experiences difficulties in describingthe structure and function of the spinal cord and brain.

Makes mistakes in identifying the structural components of the brain onthe diagram/ matching structural components of the brain with their functions/ identifying the main structural components of the spinal cord in the diagram/ stating two main functions of spinal cord  

Describes the structure and function of the spinal cord and brain.

Explains the relationship of the structure and function of the synapse;

Experiences difficulties in explaining  the relationship of the structure and function of the synapse.

Makes mistakes in identifying the structural components of the synapse/ describing the role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in transmission of nervous impulse / describing the role of Ca2+ ions in transmission of nervous impulse/ describing the role of neurotransmitters in transmission of nervous impulse/  describing the role of receptors in postsynaptic neuron to occurrence of nerve impulses

Explains the relationship of the structure and function of the synapse.

Explains the reaction of mechanoreceptors to stimuli.

Experiences difficulties in explaining the reaction of mechanoreceptors to stimuli.

Makes mistakes in comparing membrane potential of the medium stimulus with the threshold potential / explaining the effect of threshold potential to voltage-gated sodium channels / describing the effect of voltage-gated sodium channels to the occurrence of nervous impulses

Explains the reaction of mechanoreceptors to stimuli.


Summative assessment for the unit «Movement», «Biomedicine and Bioinformatics»

 

Learning objectives

10.1.6.1 Explain the relationship between the structure of the striated muscle and the mechanism of muscle contraction

10.1.6.2 Establish the relationship between the structure, location and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibres

10.4.4.1 Investigate the application of biomechanics in robotics

10.4.4.2 Study the mechanism of heart work an electrocardiogram

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Explains the relationship of the structure of striated muscles with the mechanism of muscle contraction

·         Explains relationship of the structure and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibers

·         Describes the use of biomechanics in robotics

·         Describes the mechanism of the heart using an electrocardiogram

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. Figure 1.1 shows sarcomere in a relaxed and contracted state.

X

Y

M

K

N

L

Figure 1.1

(a) Identify the state of the muscle fibers labeled "X" and "Y" in Figure 1.1.

X_______________________________________________________________________________

Y_______________________________________________________________________________

(b) Identify the structural components of sarcomere labeled "K-N" in Figure 1.1.

 

 

K

L

M

N

A

M line

Actin

Z line

Myosin

B

Z line

Myosin

M line

Actin

C

M line

Myosin

Z line

Actin

D

Z line

Actin

M line

Myosin

2. There are two types of skeletal muscle fibers, called slow-twitch (or type I) muscle fibers and fast-twitch (or type II) muscle fibers. Table 2.1 contains characteristics of slow and fast muscle fibers. Figure 2.1 shows the percentage of fast and slow muscle fibers in quadriceps for different groups of people.

Table 2.1 comparative table of slow and fast muscle fibers

Type of muscle

Colour

Aerobic capacity

Fatigue

Speed
ms/muscle contraction

Muscle fibres (1 motoric unit)

Mitochondria and blood vessels

Slow type I

red

high

resistant

110

10-180

many

Fast type IIa

red

medium

resistant

50

300-800

many

Fast type IIx

white

low

fast fatigue

50

300-800

few

Quadriceps (thigh muscle)

Figure 2

(a) Using the data of Figure 2.1, describe the tendency of muscle fiber composition in athletes with a short, middle and long distance.

 (b) Using data from Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1, explain why a world-class sprinter is more able to achieve very high speed but only for a short distance.

3. Boston Dynamics is an American engineering and robotics design company. Figure 3.1 shows Boston dynamics robots. The movement of the Boston Dynamics robots is based on biomechanics, for example, the robot wildcat can reach speeds of up to 32 km/h, its movements are based on the movement of a cheetah. The Atlas robot is the most dynamic anthropomorphic robot and his movements are based on the movement of people. His control system coordinates motions of the arms, torso and legs to achieve whole-body mobile manipulation, he can run, jump, do flips, etc.

Figure 3.1

Suggest more than two areas of activity where robots of Boston Dynamics could be used.

4. Electrocardiography is the process of producing an electrocardiogram (ECG – figure 5.1), a recording - a graph of voltage versus time - of the electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed on the skin.

Figure 5.1

(a) Label on the Figure 5.1 “P, Q, R, S, T” parts of ECG.

(b) Anormal heart rate for adults  is between 60 and 100 bpm (normocardic) where it is higher for children. A heart rate can be less or higher than normal is called bradycardia and tachycardia, deviation from normal sinus rhythm is considered a cardiac arrhythmia.

A

B

C

D

Figure 5.2

Identify the ECG heart rate deviation in Figure 5.2.

A_______________________________________________________________________________

B_______________________________________________________________________________

C_______________________________________________________________________________


 


 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Describes the relationship of the structure of striated muscles with the mechanism of muscle contraction;

1

identifies the state of the muscle fibers by diagram;

2

identifies the structural components of sarcomere;

1

Explains relationship of the structure and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibers;

2

describes the tendency to change the composition of slow type I muscle fibers in athletes from short to medium and long distance;

1

describes the tendency to change the composition of fast type IIa muscle fibers in athletes from short to medium and long distance;

1

describes the tendency to change the composition of fast type IIx muscle fibers in athletes from short to medium and long distance;

1

explains in terms of aerobic capacity;

1

explains in terms of muscle fatigue;

1

explains in terms of speed of muscle contraction;

1

Describes the use of biomechanics in robotics;

3

suggests more than two areas of activity where biomechanical robots could be used;

3

Describes the mechanism of the heart using an electrocardiogram.

5

labels on the ECG “P, Q, R, S, T” parts;

2

identifies bradycardia on the ECG;

1

identifies tachycardia on the ECG;

1

identifies arrhytmia on the ECG.

1

Total marks

17

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Movement», «Biomedicine and Bioinformatics»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Describes the relationship of the structure of striated muscles with the mechanism of muscle contraction;

Experiences difficulties in describing the relationship of the structure of striated muscles with the mechanism of muscle contraction.

Makes mistakes in identifying the state of the muscle fibers by diagram/ identifying  the structural components of sarcomere

Describes the relationship of the structure of striated muscles with the mechanism of muscle contraction.

Explains relationship of the structure and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibers;

Experiences difficulties in explaining therelationship of the structure and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibers.

Makes mistakes in describing the tendency to change the composition of slow type I muscle fibers/ describing the tendency to change the composition of fast type IIa muscle fibers/  describing the tendency to change the composition of fast type IIx muscle fibers / explaining in terms of aerobic capacity / muscle fatigue / speed of muscle contraction

Explains relationship of the structure and general properties of fast and slow muscle fibers.

Describes the use of biomechanics in robotics;

Experiences difficulties in describingthe use of biomechanics in robotics.

Makes mistakes in suggestsing more than two areas of activity where biomechanical robots could be used.

Describes the use of biomechanics in robotics.

Describes the mechanism of the heart using an electrocardiogram.

Experiences difficulties in describingthe mechanism of the heart using an electrocardiogram.

Makes mistakes in labeling  on the ECG “P, Q, R, S, T” parts/ identifying bradycardia on the ECG/ identifying tachycardia on the ECG/ identifying arrhytmia on the ECG .

Describes the mechanism of the heart using an electrocardiogram.


Summative assessment for the unit «Biotechnology»

 

Learning objectives

10.4.3.1 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology

10.4.3.2 Describe the importance of polymerase chain reaction in taxonomy, medicine and criminalistics

10.4.3.4 Discuss ethical issues of the GMO use

 

Assessment criteria

A learner:

·         Explains the advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology

·         Describes the polymerase chain reaction

·         Explains ethical issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms

 

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension

Application

Higher order thinking skills

 

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

 

 

1. (a) According to the International Diabetes Federation until the early 1980s, pharmaceutical insulin was extracted from the pancreas of cows or pigs.. Since nowadays, the process of attaching the human gene for insulin production to the DNA of the bacteria E. coli has been developed.

Describe the two benefits that insulin has produced with microorganisms.

 (b)  Bt Crops are named for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacteria that naturally produces a crystal protein that is toxic to many pest insects. Bt crops are crops that are genetically engineered to produce the same toxin as Bt in every cell of the plant, with the goal of protecting the crop from pests.. Relying on this technology only, approximately 92 million dollars was saved by the United States. However, the widespread use of the Bt Crops has several disadvantages.

Describe the disadvantages of use of Bt Crops.

2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method widely used in molecular biology to make many copies of a specific DNA segment. Using PCR, copies of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment.

Figure 2.1

(a) Name  three main stages of Polymerase chain reaction.

1_____________________________________________________________________________

2_____________________________________________________________________________

3_____________________________________________________________________________

(b) Figure 2.2 shows the components for PCR, describe the origin of the enzyme Taq polymerase.

(c) Figure 2.2 shows the graph of temperature changes during the three stages of PCR.

Figure 2.2

(c)(i) Explain the reason for heating to around 95°C in the first stage of the PCR cycle.

(c)(ii) Explain the reason for cooling to about 65°C in the second stage of the PCR cycle.

5. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are used in agriculture to improve crop yields and reduce farming costs.However the use of GM crops is a contentious issue, as economic benefits must be weighed against environmental risks.

(a) Explain  one environmental problem associated with genetically modified organisms.

(b) Explain one Human health problem associated with genetically modified organisms.

 


 

Assessment criteria

№ of question

Descriptor

Mark

A learner

Explainthe advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology;

1

describes the two benefits of GMO insulin;

2

describes the disadvantages of use of Bt Crops;

2

Describes the polymerase chain reaction;

2

names the three main stages of Polymerase chain reaction;

3

describes the origin of the enzyme Taq polymerase;

1

describes the first stage of PCR;

1

describe the second stage of PCR;

1

Explain ethical issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms.

3

describes one environmental problem associated with genetically modified organisms;

1

describes one Human health problem associated with genetically modified organisms.

1

Total marks

12

 

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Biotechnology»

Learner’s name _______________________________________

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Medium

High

Explains  the advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology;

Experiences difficulties in explaining the advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology.

Makes mistakes in explaining the two benefits of GMO insulin/ explaining  the disadvantages of use of Bt Crops

Explains the advantages and disadvantages of living organisms used in biotechnology.

Describes the polymerase chain reaction;

Experiences difficulties in describing the polymerase chain reaction.

Makes mistakes in naming the three main stages of Polymerase chain reaction/ describing the origin of the enzyme Taq polymerase/ describing the first stage of PCR/ describing the second stage of PCR

Describes the polymerase chain reaction.

Explains ethical issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms.

Experiences difficulties in explaining ethical issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms.

Makes mistakes in explaining one environmental problem associated with genetically modified organisms/ / explaining one Human health problem associated with genetically modified organisms.

Explains  ethical issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms.

 


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