Галогендер. Хлорсутек, тұз қышқылы және хлоридтер. Зертханалық тәжірибе №11 «Йод ерітіндісінің крахмалға әсері». Адам тіршілігіндегі йодтың биологиялық ролі. Химия, 10 сынып, презентация.


Галогендер. Хлорсутек, тұз қышқылы және хлоридтер.

Зертханалық тәжірибе №11

«Йод ерітіндісінің крахмалға әсері»

Адам тіршілігіндегі йодтың биологиялық ролі. Йод жетіспеушілігінен туындайтын аурулардан Қазақстан тұрғындарын сақтандыру шаралары

10.2.1.41 топ бойынша галогендердің физикалық және химиялық қасиеттерінің өзгеру заңдылығын түсіндіру;

10.2.1.42 тұз қышқылының химиялық қасиеттерін оқып білу және оның қолданылу аймағын білу;

10.4.1.12 адам ағзасындағы йодтың биологиялық ролін білу және Қазақстан территориясында йод жетіспеушілігіне байланысты туындайтын ауруларды түсіндіру және осы мәселелерді шешу жолын ұсыну;

INTRODUCTION

F

Cl

Br

I

At

THE HALOGENS OCCUR IN GROUP VII OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0

INTRODUCTION

F

Cl

Br

I

At

THE HALOGENS OCCUR IN GROUP XVII OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Group 1 2 17

0

GROUP PROPERTIES

GENERAL Бейметалл

молекулалары екі атомнан тұрады

мысалы Cl2

соңғы қабатында 7 электрон болады

иондары теріс зарядалған, аниондар, -1

GROUP PROPERTIES

GENERAL • non-metals

• exist as separate diatomic molecules… eg Cl2

• have seven electrons in their outer shells

• form negative ions with a 1- charge

• reaction with metals and halides

TRENDS appearance сыртқы түрі

boiling point қайнау нүктесі

electronic configuration электрондық конфигурация

atomic size атом өлшемі

• ionic size иондардың өлшемі

• reactivity белсенділігі

GROUP TRENDS

Топ өзгерісі

F2

Сары

Cl2

Жасыл

Br2

Қызыл қоңыр

I2

Сұр

ГАЗ

ГАЗ

СҰЙЫҚ

ҚАТТЫ

Colour

State (at RTP)

Сыртқы түрі

Сары

Жасыл

Қызыл қоңыр

Күлгін

Vapour colour

GROUP TRENDS

INCREASES down Group because more energy is required to separate the larger molecules.

Топ бойынша атомдық масса өскен сайын қайнау температурасы өседі, себебі молекулаларды үзуге көп энергия кетеді.

F2

Yellow

Cl2

Green

Br2

Red/brown

I2

Grey

GAS

GAS

LIQUID

SOLID

Colour

State (at RTP)

APPEARANCE

Қайнау температурасы

F2

- 188

Cl2

- 34

Br2

58

I2

183

Boiling point / °C

Yellow

Green

Red/brown

Purple

Vapour colour

GROUP TRENDS

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

Электрон конфигурациясы

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

GROUP TRENDS

F

Cl

Br

I

атом & ион радиус

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

NOT TO SCALE

GROUP TRENDS

ATOMIC RADIUS INCREASES down Group

IONIC RADIUS INCREASES down Group

F

Cl

Br

I

атом & ион радиусы

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

F¯

Cl¯

Br¯

I¯

0.136

0.181

0.195

0.216

Ionic radius / nm

GROUP SIMILARITIES

GROUP SIMILARITIES

• all the atoms have seven electrons in their outer shell

• ions are larger than atoms - the added electron repels the

others so radius gets larger

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

GROUP SIMILARITIES

MOLECULAR FORMULA

F

Cl

Br

I

Covalent

Covalent

Covalent

Covalent

Bonding

F2

Cl2

Br2

I2

Molecular formula

NOT TO SCALE

• all exist as diatomic molecules

GROUP SIMILARITIES

ION FORMATION

F

Cl

Br

I

Configuration

Ion

F¯

Cl¯

Br¯

I¯

2,8

2,8,8

2,8,18,8

2,8,18,18,8

• all gain one electron to form a negative ion of charge 1-

• ions are larger than atoms

• the smaller the atom the easier it forms an ion

GROUP SIMILARITIES

ION FORMATION

F

Cl

Br

I

Configuration

Ion

F¯

Cl¯

Br¯

I¯

2,8

2,8,8

2,8,18,8

2,8,18,18,8

• all gain one electron to form a negative ion of charge 1-

• ions are larger than atoms

• the smaller the atom the easier it forms an ion

REACTIVITY

F

Cl

Br

I

Reactivity

Increasingly reactive

• reactivity decreases down the Group / increases up the Group

REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

1. WITH METALS

2. WITH HALIDES

REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES.

REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES.

THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > Cl > Br > I

REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES.

THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > Cl > Br > I

THIS IS BECAUSE ‘THE LARGER THE HALOGEN ATOM, THE LESS

EASILY IT ATTRACTS THE ELECTRON IT NEEDS

TO FILL ITS OUTER SHELL’

REACTION OF HALOGENS WITH METALS

HALOGENS REACT WITH METALS TO PRODUCE METAL HALIDES.

THE EASE OF REACTION DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP F > Cl > Br > I

THIS IS BECAUSE ‘THE LARGER THE HALOGEN ATOM, THE LESS

EASILY IT ATTRACTS THE ELECTRON IT NEEDS

TO FILL ITS OUTER SHELL’

THE HALIDES OF GROUP I ARE… WHITE IONIC SOLIDS

VERY SOLUBLE IN WATER

SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaCl) IS A TYPICAL GROUP I HALIDE

REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS

REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations

SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE

+

REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations

Na + Cl2 NaCl

SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE

REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations

Na + Cl2 NaCl

SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE

The equation doesn’t balance - multiply the formulae until it does

REACTION WITH ALKALI METALS - Equations

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

Na + Cl2 NaCl

SODIUM CHLORINE SODIUM CHLORIDE

Balanced equation

Cl

SODIUM ATOM

2,8,1

Na

CHLORINE ATOM

2,8,7

11 protons; 11 electrons

17 protons; 17 electrons

SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

Cl

SODIUM ION

2,8

Na

CHLORIDE ION

2,8,8

both species now have ‘full’ outer shells; ie they have the electronic configuration of a noble gas

+

11 protons; 10 electrons

17 protons; 18 electrons

SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

Cl

SODIUM ION

2,8

Na

CHLORIDE ION

2,8,8

Na Na+ + e¯

2,8,1 2,8

ELECTRON TRANSFERRED

Cl + e¯ Cl¯

2,8,7 2,8,8

+

SODIUM CHLORIDE FORMATION

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS DECREASE IN REACTIVITY DOWN THE GROUP CAN BE DEMONSTRATED USING DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS...

A DISPLACEMENT REACTION IS WHERE ONE SPECIES TAKES THE PLACE OF ANOTHER IN A COMPOUND.

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS DECREASE IN REACTIVITY DOWN THE GROUP CAN BE DEMONSTRATED USING DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS...

A DISPLACEMENT REACTION IS WHERE ONE SPECIES TAKES THE PLACE OF ANOTHER IN A COMPOUND.

THE REACTIONS ARE EXAMPLES OF REDOX REACTIONS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

A SOLUTION OF THE HALOGEN IS ADDED TO A SOLUTION OF A HALIDE

HALIDES ARE SALTS FORMED BETWEEN ELEMENTS AND HALOGENS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

NO VISIBLE REACTION

Experiment 1

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

BROMINE produced

Experiment 2

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

IODINE produced

Experiment 3

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

NO VISIBLE REACTION

Experiment 4

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

NO VISIBLE REACTION

Experiment 5

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SODIUM

CHLORIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

SODIUM

BROMIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

CHLORINE

WATER

Pale green

BROMINE

WATER

Orange

SODIUM

IODIDE

SOLUTION

Colourless

IODINE produced

Experiment 6

SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE

SODIUM BROMIDE

SODIUM IODIDE

Solution stays colourless

NO REACTION

Solution goes from colourless to orange-yellow

NO REACTION

Solution goes from colourless to orange-yellow

BROMINE FORMED

Solution goes from colourless to orange-yellow

NO REACTION

Solution goes from colourless to red

IODINE FORMED

BROMINE

Solution goes from colourless to orange-red

IODINE FORMED

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS

1

6

5

2

3

4

The colour change in Experiments 4 and 5 is due to dilution – there is no reaction

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

Cl2(aq) + NaBr(aq) —> Br2(aq) + NaCl(aq)

The equation doesn’t balance - multiply the formulae until it does

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

Cl2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) —> Br2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq)

Cl2(aq) + NaBr(aq) —> Br2(aq) + NaCl(aq)

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

Cl2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq) —> Br2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

Cl2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) —> Br2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq)

IONIC EQUATION

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

Cl2(aq) + 2I¯(aq) —> I2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

Cl2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) —> I2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq)

IONIC EQUATION

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

Br2(aq) + 2I¯(aq) —> I2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq)

Br2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) —> I2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq)

IONIC EQUATION

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

THIS SHOWS THAT A MORE REACTIVE HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE

A LESS REACTIVE ONE FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF ITS SALT

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

SUMMARY

CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

CHLORINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE

BROMINE + SODIUM IODIDE IODINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

THIS SHOWS THAT A MORE REACTIVE HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE

A LESS REACTIVE ONE FROM AN AQUEOUS

SOLUTION OF ITS SALT

HOWEVER, THIS REACTION DOES NOT TAKE PLACE

BROMINE + SODIUM CHLORIDE CHLORINE + SODIUM BROMIDE

(Bromine is below chlorine in the Group so is less reactive)

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EQUATIONS

PRESS THE SPACE BAR TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EXPLANATION

17+

CHLORINE ATOM

17 PROTONS

17 ELECTRONS

2,8,7

35+

BROMIDE ION

35 PROTONS

36 ELECTRONS

2,8,18,8

THE CHLORINE ATOM PULLS AN ELECTRON OUT OF THE OUTER SHELL OF THE BROMIDE ION – THE CHLORINE ATOM BECOMES A CHLORIDE ION AND THE BROMIDE ION BECOMES A BROMINE ATOM.

BECAUSE BROMINE ATOMS ARE LARGER THAN CHLORINE ATOMS, IT IS EASIER TO PULL ONE OF THEIR OUTER SHELL ELECTRONS OUT.

CHLORINE NOW HAS THE OUTER SHELL ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF A NOBLE GAS.

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS

EXPLANATION

CHLORINE ATOM

17 PROTONS

17 ELECTRONS

BROMIDE ION

35 PROTONS

36 ELECTRONS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDUCTION IS THE… GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDATION IS THE… REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDUCTION IS THE… GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDATION IS THE… REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS

IN THE REACTION BETWEEN CHLORINE AND SODIUM BROMIDE, CHLORINE ATOMS PULL ELECTRONS OUT OF BROMIDE IONS.

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

Cl2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq) ——> Br2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDUCTION IS THE… GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDATION IS THE… REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS

IN THE REACTION BETWEEN CHLORINE AND SODIUM BROMIDE, CHLORINE ATOMS PULL ELECTRONS OUT OF BROMIDE IONS.

THE BROMIDE IONS ARE OXIDISED… ELECTRONS ARE REMOVED

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

Cl2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq) ——> Br2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

OXIDISED

ELECTRONS

REMOVED

CHLORINE IS THE OXIDISING AGENT

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDUCTION IS THE… GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDATION IS THE… REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS

IN THE REACTION BETWEEN CHLORINE AND SODIUM BROMIDE, CHLORINE ATOMS PULL ELECTRONS OUT OF BROMIDE IONS.

THE BROMIDE IONS ARE OXIDISED… ELECTRONS ARE REMOVED

THE CHLORINE ATOMS ARE REDUCED… ELECTRONS ARE GAINED

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

Cl2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq) ——> Br2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

REDUCED

GAIN OF ELECTRONS

BROMIDE ION IS THE REDUCING AGENT

A REDOX REACTION INVOLVES BOTH OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDUCTION IS THE… GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDATION IS THE… REMOVAL OF ELECTRONS

IN THE REACTION BETWEEN CHLORINE AND SODIUM BROMIDE, CHLORINE ATOMS PULL ELECTRONS OUT OF BROMIDE IONS.

THE BROMIDE IONS ARE OXIDISED… ELECTRONS ARE REMOVED

THE CHLORINE ATOMS ARE REDUCED… ELECTRONS ARE GAINED

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS OF HALOGENS - REDOX

Cl2(aq) + 2Br¯(aq) ——> Br2(aq) + 2Cl¯(aq)

REDUCED

OXIDISED

ELECTRONS

REMOVED

GAIN OF ELECTRONS

OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS IS DUE TO THEIR DECREASING OXIDISING ABILITY

OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS IS DUE TO THEIR DECREASING OXIDISING ABILITY

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

---- DECREASING OXIDISING POWER ----->

OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS IS DUE TO THEIR DECREASING OXIDISING ABILITY

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

THE SMALLER THE HALOGEN, THE LESS SHIELDING THERE IS AND THE GREATER THE EFFECTIVE PULL OF THE NUCLEUS.

---- DECREASING OXIDISING POWER ----->

OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS IS DUE TO THEIR DECREASING OXIDISING ABILITY

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

THE SMALLER THE HALOGEN, THE LESS SHIELDING THERE IS AND THE GREATER THE EFFECTIVE PULL OF THE NUCLEUS.

THE GREATER THE PULL OF THE NUCLEUS, THE EASIER THE ATOM CAN PULL AN ELECTRON OUT OF ANOTHER SPECIES.

---- DECREASING OXIDISING POWER ----->

OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS

HALOGENS GET LESS REACTIVE AS THE GROUP IS DESCENDED

THIS IS DUE TO THEIR DECREASING OXIDISING ABILITY

F

Cl

Br

I

2,7

2,8,7

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Configuration

9

17

35

53

Atomic Number

0.064

0.099

0.111

0.128

Atomic radius / nm

THE SMALLER THE HALOGEN, THE LESS SHIELDING THERE IS AND THE GREATER THE EFFECTIVE PULL OF THE NUCLEUS.

THE GREATER THE PULL OF THE NUCLEUS, THE EASIER THE ATOM CAN PULL AN ELECTRON OUT OF ANOTHER SPECIES.

CONSEQUENTLY, THE BIGGER THE ATOM, THE EASIER AN ELECTRON CAN BE REMOVED.

---- DECREASING OXIDISING POWER ----->

SYMBOL

MOLECULAR FORMULA

APPEARANCE

STATE (room temp)

F

PALE YELLOW

GAS

Cl

FLUORINE

IODINE

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

BOILING POINT

2,7

INCREASES

2,8,7

GAS

ION

(electronic config)

F¯

2,8

Cl¯

2,8,8

REACTION WITH SODIUM

LESS REACTIVE

PRODUCT OF REACTION WITH SODIUM

SODIUM FLUORIDE (NaF)

SODIUM CHLORIDE (NaCl)

PALE GREEN

Br

I

BROMINE

CHLORINE

F2

Cl2

Br2

I2

RED-BROWN

GREY-BLACK

LIQUID

SOLID

2,8,18,7

2,8,18,18,7

Br¯

2,8,18,8

I¯

2,8,18,18,8

SODIUM BROMIDE (NaBr)

SODIUM IODIDE (NaI)

GROUP VII - SUMMARY

COLOUR OF VAPOUR

PALE YELLOW

GREEN

RED-BROWN

PURPLE

QUICK QUIZ

ELEMENTS IN GROUP 7 ARE KNOWN AS THE ………

WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF THE ELEMENTS

HOW DOES THE ATOMIC NUMBER CHANGE DOWN THE GROUP?

HOW DOES THE ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION CHANGE?

HOW DOES THE ATOMIC SIZE (RADIUS) CHANGE?

HOW MANY ELECTRONS DO THEY HAVE IN THE OUTER LEVEL?

ARE THEY METALS OR NON-METALS?

WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR COLOUR DOWN THE GROUP?

DO THEY GO AROUND IN PAIRS OR AS MONATOMIC GASES?

WHAT HAPPENS TO THEIR STATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE?

WHAT TYPE OF COMPOUNDS DO THEY FORM WITH METALS?

HOW CAN EXPLAIN THEIR RELATIVE REACTIVITY IN TERMS OF THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE?

QUICK QUIZ - ANSWERS

HALOGENS.

FLUORINE, CHLORINE, BROMINE, IODINE, ASTATINE.

ATOMIC NUMBER INCREASES DOWN THE GROUP.

GET MORE SHELLS DOWN THE GROUP.

ATOMIC SIZE INCREASES DOWN THE GROUP.

THEY ALL HAVE SEVEN ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER LEVEL.

THEY ARE NON-METALS.

COLOUR DARKENS DOWN THE GROUP.

ATOMS GO AROUND IN PAIRS OR AS DIATOMIC GASES.

GO FROM GAS TO SOLID DOWN THE GROUP.

THEY FORM IONIC COMPOUNDS WITH METALS.

THE LARGER THEY ARE THE LESS EASILY ELECTRONS ARE GAINED AND THE LESS REACTIVE THEY BECOME.

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID?

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID?

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless covalent gas; it is a poor conductor of electricity because there are no free electrons or ions present. It has no action on dry litmus paper because there are no aqueous hydrogen ions present.

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless covalent gas; it is a poor conductor of electricity because there are no free electrons or ions present. It has no action on dry litmus paper because there are no aqueous hydrogen ions present.

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID?

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless covalent gas; it is a poor conductor of electricity because there are no free electrons or ions present. It has no action on dry litmus paper because there are no aqueous hydrogen ions present.

In water, the hydrogen chloride molecules dissociate into ions. The solution now conducts electricity showing ions are present. For each hydrogen chloride molecule that dissociates (splits up) one hydrogen ion and one chloride ion are produced. The solution turns litmus paper red because of the H+(aq) ions.

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID?

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE HYDROCHLORIC ACID

colourless gas Appearance colourless soln.

covalent molecule Bonding aqueous ions

HCl(g) Formula HCl(aq)

poor Conductivity good

no reaction Dry blue litmus goes red

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID?

HCl(g) —> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

Hydrogen chloride dissociates in water because water is a polar solvent. However, when hydrogen chloride is placed in an organic solvent such as methylbenzene it does not dissociate and does not produce H+ ions.

WATER

A polar solvent

Molecules dissociate

The solution turns litmus paper red because of the H+(aq) ions.

DOES HYDROGEN CHLORIDE ALWAYS DISSOCIATE?

METHYLBENZENE

A non-polar solvent

NO dissociation

The solution does not litmus paper red because there are NO H+(aq) ions.

WATER IS A POLAR SOLVENT –

it has one end which is slightly positive and another end which is slightly positive.

WHY DOES HYDROGEN CHLORIDE DISSOCIATE IN WATER?

positive end

negative end

WATER IS A POLAR SOLVENT –

it has one end which is slightly positive and another end which is slightly positive.

WHY DOES HYDROGEN CHLORIDE DISSOCIATE IN WATER?

When a molecule of hydrogen chloride is put into water, the water molecules ‘encourage’ the covalent bond holding the hydrogen and chlorine atoms together to split, thus forming ions.

positive end

negative end

HCl(g) —> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

WHY DOES HYDROGEN CHLORIDE DISSOCIATE IN WATER?

The chloride ions are attracted to the slightly positive hydrogen end of water.

The slightly negative oxygen end of water attracts the H+ ions.

When a molecule of hydrogen chloride is put into water, the water molecules ‘encourage’ the covalent bond holding the hydrogen and chlorine atoms together to split, thus forming ions.

HCl(g) —> H+ (aq) + Cl¯(aq)

WATER IS A POLAR SOLVENT –

it has one end which is slightly positive and another end which is slightly positive.

positive end

negative end

GROUP VII

The Halogens

THE END

© 2011 KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING & JONATHAN HOPTON



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