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СОР_Биология_11_ОГН_англ


Methodological recommendations for Summative Assessment Biology

(social-humanitarian direction)

Grade 11

Nur-Sultan, 2020

 Methodical recommendations (Guidelines) are created to help the teachers in planning, organizing and conducting of summative assessment of units on the subject "Biology" for 11 grade students. Guidelines are prepared on the basis of the Subject programme and curriculum.

 Tasks for summative assessment of unit will allow the teacher to determine the level of achievement of the learning objectives by the students planned for a term. In the methodological recommendations for a summative assessment tasks, assessment criteria with descriptors and marks are proposed. The possible levels of educational achievements of students (rubrics) are also described in the booklet. Tasks with descriptors and marks are given as recommendations.

 Guidelines are intended for primary school teachers, school administrators, methodologists of education departments, regional and school coordinators for criteria-based assessment and other stakeholders.

 Resources that were used (pictures, texts, video and audio materials, etc.) in preparing the guidelines are publicly available on official Internet sites.

CONTENTS

Summative assessment for the unit «Ecology and the impact of human activities on the environment»63

TERM 1

Summative assessment for the unit «Molecular Biology and Biochemistry»

Learning objectives

        • explain the interaction between the antigen and the antibody;
        • explain the mechanism of formation of the enzyme- substrate complex;
        • describe the stages of protein biosynthesis;
        • explain the properties of genetic code.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Describes the structure of antibody;
  • Explains the main role of antibody in immune reaction;
  • Explains the mechanism of formation of the enzyme- substrate complex;
  • Describes the stages of protein biosynthesis;
  • Apply the knowledge about the genetic code.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Antibodies are produced in response to foreign antigens and are Y-shaped in appearance. Fig. 1.1 shows general structure of antibody.

1

Figure 1.1

  • (i) Identify structural elements of antibody presented on fig. 1.1.

1

2

3

4

A

Antigen-binding site

Hydrogen bonds

Heavy chain

Light chain

B

Antigen-binding site

Disulphide bonds

Light chain

Heavy chain

C

Antibody-binding site

Hydrogen bonds

Light chain

Heavy chain

D

Antibody-binding site

Disulphide bonds

Heavy chain

Light chain

(ii) Part of the antibody indicated in figure 1.1 by the number "1" is called the variable region. Briefly describe the reason this site is different in antibodies.

  • Acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the terminal stage of HIV infection, in which the patient loses the function of the immune system and the person becomes vulnerable to any infections and diseases. Figure 1.2 shows the dependence of the number of lymphocytes on copies of HIV RNA.

Figure 1.2

Explain why a decrease in the number of lymphocytes leads to immunodeficiency.

  • Figure 2.1 shows the mechanism of interaction of the enzyme and substrate.

1234

Figure 2.1

  • (i) Identify the stages of enzymatic action presented on fig. 2.1.

1

2

3

4

A

ES

E + S

EP

E + P

B

E + P

EP

ES

E + S

C

E + S

ES

EP

E + P

D

E + P

EP

EP

E + S

(ii) Briefly describe the function of active site of enzyme.

  • Figure 2.1 shows a diagram of two basic models of the interaction of an enzyme and a substrate, a lock and key model and a induced-fit model. At the moment, induced-fit model is supported by a lot of evidence.

Lock and Key model

Induced-fit model

Figure 2.1

Compare the two models of enzymatic action presented in figure 2.1.

  • The central dogma of molecular biology describes the two-step process, transcription and translation, by which the information in genes flows into proteins: DNA → RNA → protein.
  • Identify events occurring in transcription and translation.

Transcription

A.Ribosomal complex reached one or more stop codons;

B.RNA polymerase crosses a termination sequence in the gene;

C.The small subunit of the ribosome binds at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule and moves in a 3' direction until it meets a start codon;

Translation

D.RNA polymerase moves along the template strand, synthesising an mRNA molecule;

E.RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the template strand;

F.The ribosome produce a chain of amino acids moves along the mRNA molecule;

Transcription: ; Translation: .

  • Figure 3 shows an electron micrograph of a bacterial gene as it is being transcribed and translated.

Figure 3

Describe the main differences of protein biosynthesis in prokaryotic organisms in contrast to eukaryotes.

  • Briefly describe the role of transfer RNA in production of a polypeptide.
  • The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material into proteins. Figure 4 shows the genetic code table.

Figure 4.1

Fill in all boxes in table 4.2 using figure 4.1 Table 4.2

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Describes the structural

features of antibodies;

1

identifies the structural elements of antibody;

describes the role of variable region;

1

1

Explains the main role

of antibody in immune reaction;

describes the main function of lymphocytes;

indicates the relationship of lymphocytes and

antibodies;

1

1

Explainsthe

mechanismof formationofthe enzyme-substrate complex

2

identifies the stages of enzymatic action;

describes the function of active site of the

enzyme;

describes one similarity of two models of

enzymatic action;

describes one difference of two models of

enzymatic action;

1

1

1

1

Describes the stages of

protein biosynthesis;

3

identifies stages of transcription;

identifies stages of translation;

describes the main differences of prokaryotes;

describes the differences of translation between

prokaryotes and eukaryotes;

describes the role of tRNAin translation;

1

1

1

1

1

Apply the knowledge

about the genetic code.

4

determines a complementary DNA sequence;

determines DNA-based mRNA sequence;

determines mRNA-based mRNA sequence;

determines mRNA-based anticodon tRNA;

determines mRNA based amino acids.

1

1

1

1

1

Total marks

18

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Molecular Biology and Biochemistry»

Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Describes the structural features of antibodies.

Has difficulties in description of the structural features of antibodies.

Makes mistakes in description of the structural features of antibodies.

Describesthestructural features of antibodies.

Explains the main role of antibody in immune reaction.

Has difficulties in explanation of the main role of antibody in immune reaction.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the main role of antibody in immune reaction.

Explains the main role of antibody in immune reaction.

Explains the mechanism of formation of the enzyme- substrate complex.

Has difficulties in explanation of the mechanism of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the mechanism of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex.

Explains the mechanism of formation of the enzyme- substrate complex.

Describes the stages of protein biosynthesis.

Has difficulties in description of the stages of protein biosynthesis.

Makes mistakes in description of the stages of protein biosynthesis.

Describes the stages of protein biosynthesis.

Apply the knowledge about the genetic code.

Has difficulties in application of the knowledge about the genetic code.

Makes mistakes in application of the knowledge about the genetic code.

Apply the knowledge about the genetic code.

Summative assessment for the unit «Nutrition»

Learning objectives

        • establish a relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast;
        • explain the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis;
        • explain the processes occurring during the dark phase of photosynthesis;
        • investigate and explain the limiting factors of photosynthesis;
        • comparethefeaturesphotosynthesisand chemosynthesis processes.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Describes the relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast;
  • Explains the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis;
  • Explains the processes occurring in the dark phase of photosynthesis;
  • Explains the limiting factors of photosynthesis;
  • Comparesthefeaturesphotosynthesisand chemosynthesis processes.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Figure 1 demonstrates the general structure of chloroplast.

4

Figure 1

  • Identify the main structural elements of chloroplast presented on fig. 1.

1

2

3

4

A

Stroma

Thylakoid

Granum

Lamella

B

Thylakoid

Stroma

Granum

Lamella

C

Thylakoid

Stroma

Lamella

Granum

D

Stroma

Thylakoid

Lamella

Granum

  • Name the structural components of chloroplast, in which the light and dark phase of photosynthesis takes place.

Light phase Dark phase

  • Photosynthesis represents the biological process by which plants convert light energy into sugar to supply plant cells. Photosynthesis takes place through several steps which occur during two stages: the light phase and the dark phase.
  • Name the products of the light phase of the photosynthesis.
  • Explain the role of the thylakoid membrane in photosynthesis.
  • The Calvin cycle, or light-independent reactions, of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into carbohydrates.
  • Name the products of the Calvin cycle.
  • Explain how the products of photophosphorylation are used in the Calvin cycle.
  • Changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, light intensity and temperature alter the rate of photosynthesis. These three factors directly affect different stages of photosynthesis. Figure 4 shows the main curves of photosynthesis rate versus various factors.

Identify factors affecting photosynthesis rate and write them in boxes.

Figure 4

  • Describe the three main differences between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis processes.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Explainsthe

relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast;

1

identifies the main components of chloroplast;

names the structural components of chloroplast,

in which the light phase of photosynthesis takes place;

names the structural components of chloroplast,

in which the dark phase of photosynthesis takes place;

1

1

1

Explains the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis

2

namestheproducts

photosynthesis;

describes the main component of the structure of

the thylakoid membrane;

explains the role of the products of the light phase

of photosynthesis;

of

1

1

light

phase

of

1

Explains the processes

occurring in the dark phaseof

photosynthesis;

3

namestheproducts

photosynthesis;

names the stages of Calvin cycle when uses

products of the light phase of photosynthesis;

describes role of using products of the light phase

of photosynthesis;

of

1

1

dark

phase

of

1

Explainsthe

factors photosynthesis;

limiting

of

4

identifies the factors affecting photosynthesis rate

by curves;

3

Compares the features photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

processes.

5

describes the three main differences between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis processes.

3

Total marks

15

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Nutrition» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Explains the relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast.

Has difficulties in explaination of the relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast.

Makes mistakes in explaination of the relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast

Explains the relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast.

Explains the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis.

Has difficulties in explaination of the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis.

Makes mistakes in explaination of the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis.

Explains the processes occurring in the light phase of photosynthesis.

Explains the processes occurring in the dark phase of photosynthesis.

Has difficulties in explaination of the processes occurring in the dark phase of photosynthesis.

Makes mistakes in explaination of the processes occurring in the dark phase of photosynthesis.

Explains the processes occurring in the dark phase of photosynthesis.

Explains the limiting factors of photosynthesis.

Has difficulties in explaination of the limiting factors of photosynthesis.

Makes mistakes in explaination of the limiting factors of photosynthesis.

Explains the limiting factors of photosynthesis.

Compares the features photosynthesisand chemosynthesis processes.

Has difficulties in comparison of the features photosynthesis and chemosynthesis processes.

Makes mistakes in comparison of the features photosynthesis and chemosynthesis processes.

Compares the features photosynthesisand chemosynthesis processes.

TERM 2

Summative assessment for the unit «Transport of substances»

Learning objectives

        • explain the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump;
        • explain the essence of symplastic, apoplastic and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances;
        • study the water potential of cells in solutions of different saline concentrations.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Explains the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump;
  • Explains the essence of symplastic, apoplastic and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances;
  • Explains the role of water potential in the transport of water in plants;
  • Investigates the water potential of plant tissue.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Sodium-potassium pump is an enzyme found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process.

Explain the reason why sodium potassium pump is an example of active transport.

  • Water enters a plant through the root hair cells in the root, and moves across the root cells into the xylem, which transports it up and around the plant. Figure 2 shows three pathways of transport of substances in plants.

Casparian strip

Figure 2

  • Identify the pathways marked "1, 2, 3" in Figure 2.

1

2

3

  • Explain the role of Casparian strip in the uptake of water into the xylem vessels.
  • Figure 3.1 shows the water potential in three cells

Cell ACell

Figure 3.1

  • Identify the cell with higher water potential.
  • In fig. 3.1 identify the directions where the net movement of water by osmosis occurs.

A

B

B

D

  • Figure 3.2 shows a vessel separated by a semi-permeable membrane, part A contains a dilute solution, and part B contains a concentrated sugar solution.

Semi-permeable membrane

AB

Figure 3.2

Identify the part of the vessel with high water potential and explain your answer.

  • Students conducted an experiment to determine the water potential of potato cells in solutions with different salt concentrations. The data of their experiment are presented in Figure 4.

Figure 4

  • Identify the osmolarity of potato.

Water potential (Ψ) is determined by the formula: Ψ = ΨS + ΨP

Since the experiment was carried out in an open container, the pressure potential (ΨP) is zero. Therefore, the water potential will be equal to the solute potential (ΨS). For determination the solute potential this formula is used:

ΨS = -icRT (-i*c*R*T)

    • i ionization constant - no units, usually between 1 and 2 (1 for sucrose, 2 for NaCl)
    • C Molar concentration (osmolarity of potato)
    • R pressure constant 0=0.0831
    • T Temperature in Kelvin (273+ °C).
  • Calculate the water potential of the potato, provided that the experiment was carried out at a temperature of 22oC

Ψ= ΨS =

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Explainsthe

mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump;

1

describes the work of sodium potassium pump in

terms of concentration gradient;

connects the role of energy in the transport of

sodium and potassium;

1

1

Explains the essence of

symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances;

2

identifies the pathways of transport of substances

by diagram;

describes the main feature of Casparian strip;

associates the properties of a Сasparian strip with

a function in transport of substances in plants;

3

1

1

Explains the role of

water potential in the transport of water in plants;

3

identifies the cell with higher water potential;

identifies the directions of net movement of

water;

identifies the solution with higher water potential;

connects the concept of water potential with

solution concentration;

1

1

1

1

Investigates the water

potential of plant tissue.

4

identifies the osmolarity of potato;

identifies the ionization constant for NaCl

uses the number of osmolarity of potato;

calculates the temperature in Kelvin;

calculates the solute potential by formula.

1

1

1

1

1

Total marks

16

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Transport of substances» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Explains the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump.

Has difficulties in explanation of the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump.

Explains the mechanism of active transport based on the example of sodium – potassium pump.

Explains the essence of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances.

Has difficulties in explanation of the essence of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the essence of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances.

Explains the essence of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways of transport of substances.

Explains the role of water potential in the transport of water in plants.

Has difficulties in explanation of the role of water potential in the transport of water in plants.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the role of water potential in the transport of water in plants.

Explains the role of water potential in the transport of water in plants.

Investigates the water potential of plant tissue.

Has difficulties in determining the water potential of plant tissue.

Makes mistakes in determining the water potential of plant tissue

Investigates the water potential of plant tissue.

Summative assessment for the unit «Coordination and regulation»

Learning objectives

        • describe control systems in biology.
        • explain the mechanism of hormones action.
        • study the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Describes the control systems in biology;
  • Describes the feedback principle on the example of temperature control;
  • Explains the mechanism of hormones action;
  • Explains the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • There are two major systems for coordinating and controlling responses to stimuli: the endocrine and nervous systems. In the nervous system (fig. 1 A), neurons transmit signals along certain routes connecting specific locations in the body. In the endocrine system (fig.1 B), signaling molecules released into the bloodstream by endocrine cells are carried to all locations in the body.

Figure 1

  • Describe two features of the endocrine system that make it more suitable for maintaining of homeostasis.
  • Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands. Explain what is meant by the term endocrine gland.
  • The regulation of body temperature in humans and other mammals is brought about by a complex system based on feedback mechanisms. The sensors for thermoregulation are concentrated in the hypothalamus. Within the hypothalamus, a group of nerve cells functions as a thermostat, responding to body temperatures outside the normal range by activating mechanisms that promote heat loss or gain.
  • Identify the activity of organs in increasing of body temperature.

Hypothalamus

Blood vessels

Sweat glads

Body temperature

A

Activates cooling mechanisms

Dilate

Secrete sweat

Decreases

B

Activates warming mechanisms

Constrict

Secrete sweat

Increases

C

Activates cooling mechanisms

Dilate

Don’t secrete sweat

Increases

D

Activates warming mechanisms

Constrict

Don’t secrete sweat

Decreases

  • Identify the the activity of organs in decreasing of body temperature.

Hypothalamus

Blood vessels

Skeletal muscles

Body temperature

A

Activates cooling mechanisms

Dilate

Relaxes

Decreases

B

Activates warming mechanisms

Constrict

Rapidly contract

Increases

C

Activates cooling mechanisms

Dilate

Rapidly contract

Increases

D

Activates warming mechanisms

Constrict

Relaxes

Decreases

  • Insulin and glucagon are involved in the control of blood glucose concentration. Table below shows the effect of several events on the blood concentration of glucose, insulin and glucagon in a healthy person. Complete the table using the words increase, decrease or no effect.

Initial effect of event on blood concentration of

Event

Glucose

Insulin

Glucagon

Meal containing sucrose

increase

increase

decrease

Meal containing only protein

Fasting

Exercising

Meal containing starch

  • The menstrual cycle describes recurring changes that occur within the female reproductive system to make pregnancy possible. Figure 3 shows the flowchart of menstrual cycle.

Figure 3

  • Describe the changes that take place in the ovary, as a result of the action of FSH.
  • Describe the role of oestrogene in menstrual cycle.
  • Chemicals known as plant hormones or plant growth regulators are responsible for most communication within plants. Initial research into plant hormones identified five major classes: abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene and gibberellins.

Figure 4

Figure 4 shows major function of auxins – stimulate stem elongation. Explain the mechanism of auxin work based on Figure 4.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Describes the control

systems in biology.

1

describes the two features of the endocrine system

that make it more suitable for homeostasis;

describes the structural feature of endocrine

glands;

establishes a relationship of the structural features

of the endocrine glands with their functions;

2

1

1

Describes the feedback principle on the example of temperature control

identifies the activity of organs with an increase

in body temperature;

identifies the the activity of organs in lowering

body temperature

1

1

Explains the

mechanism of hormones action

2

states the effect of several events on the blood

concentration of glucose, insulin and glucagon;

4

3

describes the role of progesterone in menstrual

cycle;

describes the role of FSH in menstrual cycle;

2

2

Explains the effect of

stimulantsonplant growth.

4

describes the interaction of auxins with a proton

pump;

describes the changing of pH;

describes the influence of pH to cell wall;

explains the increase in cell size by the movement

of water.

1

1

1

2

Total marks

19

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Coordination and regulation» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Describes the control systems in biology.

Has difficulties in description the control systems in biology.

Makes mistakes in description the control systems in biology.

Describes the control systems in biology.

Describes the feedback principle

Has difficulties in description of the feedback principle

Makes mistakes in description of feedback principle

Describes the feedback principle

Explains the mechanism of hormones action.

Has difficulties in explanation the mechanism of hormones action.

Makes mistakes in explanation the mechanism of hormones action.

Explains the mechanism of hormones action

Studies the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Has difficulties in explanation the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Makes mistakes in explanation the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Studies the effect of stimulants on plant growth.

Summative assessment for the unit «Reproduction»

Learning objectives

        • study a human gametogenesis;
        • explain the differences of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Describes main structure of gametes;
  • Describes main characteristics of gametogenesis;
  • Compares the spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes. Gametes are specialized sex cells that contain half of the number of chromosomes of the parent. In humans, the female gamete is called an ovum or egg, while the male gamete is called the sperm.

Figure 1.1

  • Identify the structural elements of sperm cell presented on fig. 1.1.

1

2

3

4

5

A

Tail

Plasma membrane

Mitochondrion

Nucleus

Acrosome

B

Mitochondrion

Tail

Plasma membrane

Acrosome

Acrosome

C

Tail

Mitochondrion

Plasma membrane

Acrosome

Nucleus

D

Plasma membrane

Mitochondrion

Tail

Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Name the structural elements of ovum presented on fig. 1.2.

Figure 1.2

A B C

  • The formation of male gametes is known as spermatogenesis and the formation of female gametes as oogenesis.

Figure 2.1 showhs the general scheme of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Primary oocytePrimary spermatocyte

Secondary oocyte

Secondary spermatocyte

Ootid

Polar bodiesSpermatids

Figure 2.1

Identify the ploidy of the following stages of gamete formation.

Primary oocyte ;

Primary spermatocyte ;

Secondary oocyte ;

Secondary spermatocyte ;

Ootid ; Polar bodies.

Spermatids .

  • Figure 3 demonstrates the formation of gametes in male and female.

AB

Figure 3

  • Name the processes A, B, C in figure 3.

A B C

  • During gametogenesis, sex cells divide in different ways and also change their structure.
  • Describe two differences between spermatids and spermatozoa (sperm cell).
  • Describe two differences between ovum (egg cell) and polar bodies.
  • Describe one similarity and two differences between the formation of gametes in males and females. Similarity

Differences

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Describes main

structure of gametes;

1

identifies main structural components of sperm

cell;

names the main structural components of ovum;

1

3

Describes main

characteristics of gametogenesis;

2

determines the ploidy of primary oocyte and

spermatocyte;

determines the ploidy of secondary oocyte and

spermatocyte;

determines the ploidy of ootid, polar body and

spermatid;

1

1

1

Compares the

spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

3

names the main processes of gametogenesis

describes two differences between spermatids and

spermatozoa;

describes two differences between ovum and

polar bodies;

3

2

2

4

describes one similarity of formation of gametes

in males and females in animals;

describes two differences between the formation

of gametes in males and females in animals.

1

2

Total marks

17

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Reproduction» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Describes main structure of gametes.

Has difficulties in description of main structure of gametes.

Makes mistakes in description of main structure of gametes.

Describes main structure of gametes.

Describes main characteristics of gametogenesis.

Has difficulties in description of main characteristics of gametogenesis.

Makes mistakes in description of main characteristics of gametogenesis.

Describes main characteristics of gametogenesis.

Compares the spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Has difficulties in comparison of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Makes mistakes in comparison of the spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Compares the spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

TERM 3

Summative assessment for the units «Growth and development» and «Regularities of heredity and variability»

Learning objectives

11.2.3.1 - explain the process of stem cell specialization and their practical application;

        • - establish the relationship of mutations with the recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid;
        • - discuss the significance of the international project “Human Genome”.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Explains the significance of stem cells;
  • Evaluates the ethical issues of using embryonic stem cell;
  • Distinguishesbetweentheterms‘mutation’and ‘recombination’;
  • Describes, with specific examples, how mutations are caused by errors in replication;
  • Describes the goals of the HGP;
  • Explains outcomes of the HGP;
  • Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
  • Stem cell therapy is the introduction of new adult stem cells into damaged tissue to treat disease or injury. Fill the table about stem cells.

Statements

Answer

Howmanytimes stem cells can divide

Divide by process

May be found in

Usedfortreating (diseases such as)

  • Immature egg could be used either to produce cells to treat some human diseases or to produce a baby as it shown in figure 1.

Figure 1

Embryonic stem cell research poses a moral dilemma. It forces us to choose between two moral principles:

    • The duty to prevent or alleviate suffering;
    • The duty to respect the value of human life;

In the case of embryonic stem cell research, it is impossible to respect both moral principles.To obtain embryonic stem cells, the early embryo has to be destroyed. This means destroying a potential human life. But embryonic stem cell research could lead to the discovery of new medical treatments that would alleviate the suffering of many people.

Express your opinion on these two moral principles.

  • Genetic variation is the difference in DNA sequences between individuals within a population. Mutations and recombination are major sources of variation.

A

B

Figure 2

  • The figure 2 shows mechanism of mutation and recombination.
  • Identify and label on figure 2 mechanism of mutation and recombination.
  • Explain your answer from (i).
  • Incorrectly paired nucleotides that remain unrepaired mismatch repair become permanent mutations after the next cell division. Explain why they became permanent mutations.
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project from 1990-2003.
  • State at least 2 goals of this project.
  • In 13 years several major outcomes in different fields was made by HGP. State at least 2 achievements of the HGP in field of given spheres.

Identification of new genes

Understanding basic biology

  • The Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, and in 2010 a larger international project, The Human Proteome, was launched, which was aimed both at studying the genome and studying proteins encoded by genes. In 2017, a new database of human genes was created - CHESS.

As you can see, the study of the human genome is developing very intensively, and this has its advantages and disadvantages.

  • Describe the benefits of further study of the genome.
  • Describe the disadvantages that arise from the study of the genome.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Explain the

significance of stem cells.

1

describes characteristics of stem cells using the

statements in the table;

4

Evaluatetheethical

issues of using stem cells.

expresses own opinion on the moral principle of

‘prevent or alleviate suffering’;

expresses own opinion on the moral principle of

‘respect the value of human life’;

1

1

Distinguishes between the terms ‘mutation’ and ‘recombination’.

Describes, with specific

examples, how mutations are caused by errors in replication.

2

identifiesthemechanismofmutationand

recombination;

explains the main features of mutation;

explains the main features of recombination;

explains causes of permanent mutations;

1

1

1

2

Describes the goals of

the HGP.

Explains outcomes of

the HGP.

3

describes two goals of the Human Genome

project;

states two achievements of the Human Genome

project;

2

2

Discusses the

advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

4

describes the benefits of further study of the

genome;

describes the disadvantages that arise from the

study of the genome.

2

2

Total marks

19

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for units «Growth and development» and« Laws of heredity and variation»

Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Explain the significance of stem cells.

Has difficulties in explanation of the significance of stem cells.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the significance of stem cells.

Explain the significance of stem cells.

Evaluate the ethical issues of using stem cells.

Has difficulties in evaluation of the ethical issues of using stem cells.

Makes mistakes in evaluation of the ethical issues of using stem cells.

Evaluate the ethical issues of using stem cells.

Distinguishes between the terms ‘mutation’ and ‘recombination’.

Has difficulties in distinguishing between the terms ‘mutation’ and ‘recombination’.

Makesmistakesin distinguishing between the terms ‘mutation’ and ‘recombination’.

Distinguishes between the terms ‘mutation’ and ‘recombination’.

Describes, with specific examples, how mutations are caused by errors in replication.

Has difficulties in description how mutations are caused by errors in replication.

Makes mistakes in description how mutations are caused by errors in replication.

Describes, with specific examples, how mutations are caused by errors in replication.

Describes the goals of the HGP.

Has difficulties in description the goals of the HGP.

Makes mistakes in description the goals of the HGP.

Describes the goals of the HGP.

Explains outcomes of the HGP.

Has difficulties in explanation of the outcomes of the HGP.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the outcomes of the HGP.

Explains outcomes of the HGP.

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

Has difficulties in discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

Makes mistakes in discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of studying human genes.

Summative assessment for the unit «Cell biology»

Learning objectives

11.4.2.1 - identify and describe the main cell components using micrographs;

11.4.2. - determine the actual size of cell components.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Identifies and describes the main cell components using micrographs;
  • Calculates the magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph;
  • Determines the actual size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Figures 1 shows a micrograph of organelles received with transmission electron microscope.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2

  • (i) Identify the organelle labeled A in figure 1.1

(ii) Describe the function of the organelle labeled A in a micrograph of figure 1.1.

  • (i) Identify the organelle labeled B in figure 1.2

(ii) Describe the function of the organelle labeled B in a micrograph of figure 1.2.

  • Figure 2 shows a cell in which there is a large number of organelles labeled by box C.

Figure 2

  • (i) Identify the organelle labeled by box C in figure 2.

(ii) Describe the function of the organelle labeled by box C in figure 2.

  • The cell as shown in figure 2 contains a lot of organelle ‘C’. Suggest the possible function of that cell linked with function of that cell’s organelle.
  • Figure 3.1 shows electron micrograph of plant cell.

Figure 3.1

  • Since there is a scale in the micrograph, it becomes possible to calculate the magnification and the actual size of the organelle.
  • Calculate the magnification of micrograph and show your working.
  • Calculate the actual size of nucleus and show your working.
  • Figure 3.2 shows micrograph of bacterium Vibrio vulnificus.

Figure 3.2

  • Calculate the magnification of micrograph and show your working.
  • Calculate the actual length of Vibrio vulnificus and show your working.
  • Figure 4.2 shows cell viewed with optical microscope. The stage micrometer used has 100 divisions and a total length of 1mm.

Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

  • With reference to Figure 4.1, calculate the calibration of the eyepiece graticule; give your answers in micrometers. Show your working.
  • Using your calculated calibration number from the previous question, what is the length of the cell in Fig. 4.2. Give your answer in micrometers.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Identifies and describes

themaincell

componentsusing micrographs;

1

identifies the organelle A by micrograph;

describes the main function of organelle A;

identifies the organelle B by micrograph;

describes the main function of organelle B;

1

1

1

1

2

identifies the organelle C by micrograph;

describes the main function of organelle C;

suggests the function of a cell by the function of

organelles presented in large amount;

1

1

1

Calculatesthe

magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph;

3

calculates the magnification of micrograph of a

plant cell;

calculates the actual size of nucleus using the

micrograph;

calculates the magnification of micrograph of

bacterium cell;

calculates the actual size of bacterium using the

micrograph;

2

2

2

2

Determines the actual

size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

4

calculatesthecalibrationoftheeyepiece

graticule;

calculates the length of the cell by eyepiece

graticule.

2

2

Total marks

19

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Cell biology» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Identifies and describes the main cell components using micrographs.

Has difficulties in identification and description of the main cell components using micrographs.

Makesmistakesin identification and description of the main cell components using micrographs.

Identifies and describes the main cell components using micrographs.

Calculates the magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph.

Has difficulties in calculation of the magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph.

Makes mistakes in calculation of the magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph.

Calculates the magnification and actual size of organelle by micrograph.

Determines the actual size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

Has difficulties in determining of the actual size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

Makes mistakes in determining of the actual size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

Determines the actual size of cell components using methods of micrometry.

Summative assessment for the unit «Biotechnology»

Learning objectives

        • compare gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria;
        • explain the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA;
        • explain the ways of cloning organisms;
        • discuss the possibility of the use of enzymes in medicine, chemistry and industry.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Compares gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria;
  • Explains the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA;
  • Explains the ways of cloning organisms;
  • Discusses the possibility of the use of enzymes in medicine.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • The gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet colour and stains purple whereas the gram-negative bacteria lose crystal violet and stain red. Thus, the two types of bacteria are distinguished by gram staining.

A

B

Figure 1

  • Identify types of bacteria in figure 1 by their structure.
  • Identify more resistant to antibodies type of bacteria and give reasons for your answer.
  • The bacterium marked with the letter B in Figure 1 has a double layer of the membrane, this prevents the penetration of many substances. Explain how these bacteria get nutrients.
  • Recombinant DNA, molecules of DNA from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations. For this, restriction enzymes are used. Restriction enzyme is a protein produced by bacteria that cleaves DNA at specific sites along the molecule. Figure 2 shows the DNA sequence carrying the necessary information.

Cut DNA fragment

A A T T C A A T C G T A C G

Sticky end

G T T A G C A T G C T T A A

Figure 2

  • A number of different restriction enzymes are now available, some of them are shown in the table below:

Enzyme

Source

Recognition site

EcoRI

Escherichia coli RY 13

GAATTC

BamHI

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H

GGATCC

HindIII

Haemophilus influenzae Rd

AAGCTT

  • Name the restriction enzyme used in the example above (fig. 2).
  • Explain why the ends of cut DNA fragment are known as ‘sticky ends’.
  • In recombinant DNA technology, the piece of DNA which has been cut out is inserted into a plasmid which has been cut using the same enzyme.
  • Explain importance of using the same restriction enzyme to cut plasmid.
  • Name the type of enzyme used to join the cut fragment into the plasmid.
  • The first animal to be successfully cloned was a sheep named Dolly, who was born in 1996. Dolly was cloned using the somatic cell nuclear transfer method (fig. 3).

Figure 3

Describe the principle of somatic cell nuclear transfer method, by the example of the Dolly sheep cloning.

  • Enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. Enzymes are used in medicine in a variety of ways. Give two examples of the use of enzymes in medicine.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Comparesgram-

positiveandgram- negative bacteria.

1

identifies types of bacteria by structure;

identifies more resistant to antibodies type of

bacteria by structure;

explains the reason of bacterial resistance to

antibodies;

describes the features of bacteria membranes;

describes the relationship between structural

features of the membrane of bacteria and their nutrition;

1

1

2

1

1

Explains the ways of

obtaining recombinant DNA.

2

names the restriction enzyme;

explains the term ‘sticky ends’;

explains importance of using the same restriction

enzymes to cut plasmid;

names the type of enzyme used to join the cut

fragment into the plasmid;

1

1

2

1

Describes the ways of cloning organisms.

3

describes the work done with the donor's egg cell;

describes the work done with the donor's somatic

cell;

describes the effects leading to cell fusion;

describe the role of a surrogate ewe;

1

1

1

1

Discuss the possibility

of the use of enzymes in medicine.

4

gives two examples of the use of enzymes in

medicine.

2

Total marks

17

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Biotechnology» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Compares gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Has difficulties in comparison of the gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria.

Makes mistakes in comparison of the gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria.

Compares gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Explains the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA.

Has difficulties in explanation of the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA.

Explains the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA.

Describes the ways of cloning organisms.

Has difficulties in description of the ways of cloning organisms.

Makes mistakes in description of the ways of cloning organisms.

Describes the ways of cloning organisms.

Discuss the possibility of the use of enzymes in medicine.

Has difficulties in discussion of the possibility of the use of

Makes mistakes in discussion of the possibility of the use of

Discuss the possibility of the use of enzymes in medicine.

enzymes in medicine.

enzymes in medicine.

TERM 4

Summative assessment for the unit «Biomedicine and Bioinformatics»

Learning objectives

        • explain the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body;
        • describe the role of bioinformatics;
        • explain the meaning of the IVF;
        • explain the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Explains the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body;
  • Describes the role of bioinformatics;
  • Explains the meaning of the IVF.
  • Explains the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Electromagnetic waves are produced by the motion of electrically charged particles. These waves are also called electromagnetic radiation because they radiate from the electrically charged particles.
  • In 2008 Giladi et al. demonstrated that Electro Magnetic Fields of intermediate frequency was effective in arresting the growth of cells (direct inhibitory effect on cell growth).

Suggest medical use of the effect of EMF intermediate frequency on cell growth arrest.

  • The table below summarizes the findings of scientists and public opinion regarding the effects of electromagnetic fields on human health.

Conclusions from scientific research

Effects on general health

Based on a recent in-depth review of the scientific literature, the WHO (World Health Organization) concluded that current evidence does not confirm the existence of any health consequences from exposure to low level electromagnetic fields.

However, some gaps in knowledge about biological effects exist and need further research.

Some members of the public have attributed a diffuse collection of symptoms to low levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields at home. Reported symptoms include headaches, anxiety, suicide and depression, nausea, fatigue and loss of libido.

Express your opinion on the effects of EMF on human health a give an argument in your favor.

  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines biology, computer science, information engineering, mathematics and statistics to analyze and interpret biological data.

Describe the role of bioinformatics in molecular biology and the study of genome.

  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). Figure 3 shows the general scheme of IVF.

Figure 3

  • Describe the general stages of IVF based on Figure 3.
  • IVF provides people with the opportunity to have children but at the same time opens up a number of moral, ethical, and religious controversy.

Express your opinion on the ethics of IVF.

  • Antibodies bind other molecules strongly and specifically and are therefore useful as reagents in research, diagnosis and therapy.

Figure 4

  • Some of the steps in the production of monoclonal antibodies are shown in Fig. 4.
  • Name this method of producing monoclonal antibodies.
  • With reference to Fig. 4 explain what is meant by a hybridoma cell (step 4).
  • With reference to Fig. 4 explain why hybridoma cells need to be formed (step 4).
  • Suggest advantages of using monoclonal antibodies.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Explains the effects of

electromagnetic and sound waves on human body.

1

suggests medical use of the effect of EMF on cell

growth arrest;

expresses opinion about effects of EMF on human

health;

provides arguments to defend one’s own opinion;

2

1

1

Describes the role of bioinformatics.

2

describes the change in the amount of data in

modern biology;

describes the opportunities that the development

of computer technology provides;

makes the connection between data and computer

technology;

1

1

1

Explains the meaning of the IVF.

3

describes the oocyte retrieval stage;

describes the fertilization stage;

describes the embryo transfer stage;

expresses opinion on IVF;

provides arguments to defend one’s own opinion;

1

1

1

1

1

Explains the use of

monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

4

names the method of producing monoclonal

antibodies;

explains what is hybridoma cell;

explains why hybridoma cells need to be formed;

suggestsadvantagesofusingmonoclonal

antibodies.

1

1

2

1

Total marks

17

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Biomedicine and Bioinformatics» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Explains the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body.

Has difficulties in explanation of the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body.

Explains the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on human body.

Describes the role of bioinformatics.

Has difficulties in description of the role of bioinformatics.

Makes mistakes in description of the role of bioinformatics.

Describes the role of bioinformatics.

Explains the meaning of the IVF.

Has difficulties in explanation of the meaning of the IVF.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the meaning of the IVF.

Explains the meaning of the IVF.

Explains the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Has difficulties in explanation of the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Explains the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Summative assessment for the unit «Biosphere, ecosystem, population»

Learning objectives

        • - establish the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience;
        • - explore the ecosystems of your region in the field using statistical methods of analysis.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Explains the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience;
  • Uses chi-sqared test to investigate ecosystem;
  • Uses Simpson’s index to investigate ecosystem.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Species richness is often used as a criterion when assessing the relative conservation values of habitats or landscapes. Table 1.1 presents data on the number of certain insects species in three areas.

Table 1.1

Number of individuals of each species in each habitat

Species

Barley field

Wheat field

Under hedge

a

32

4

0

b

78

0

1

c

0

126

2

d

0

5

12

e

0

0

8

f

0

0

9

k

86

56

0

l

0

0

7

Totalnumberof

insects (N)

196

191

39

Species richness

  • Calculate the species richness in table 1.1.
  • State a conclusion about the species richness of these sites.
  • Evenness is the proportion of species or functional groups present on the area. The more equal species are in proportion to each other, the greater the evenness of the area. A site with low evenness indicates that a few species dominate the area.

Table 2

Number of individuals

Flower species

Field A

Field B

Daisy

300

10

Dandelion

330

50

Buttercup

370

940

Total

1000

1000

  • State a conclusion about the species evenness of these fields in table 2.
  • State a conclusion about the ecosystem stability of these fields in table 2.
  • During the field ecological investigation, a group of students investigated the number of plants of Tripholium pratense in various areas. They counted the number of plants in the grassland area and in the area near the salt lake using the quadrat sampling method; their results are in the table below. The students decided to use chi-squared test to analyze the data collected from two areas to see clover dependence on soil salinity.
  • Complete the table below to determine the value of Chi-squared test.

Table 3.1

Areas

Observed (O)

Expected (E)

(O-E)

(O-E)2

(O-E)2

E

Grassland

85

56

Near salt lake

17

56

χ2 =

  • State a null hypothesis.

The degrees of freedom the students should have used – 1.

Figure 3.2

  • With reference to Figure 3.2, explain why you should accept or reject your null hypothesis.
  • Students conducted a study comparing biodiversity in two sections of a field, the first section was grassland and the second section was a disturbed steppe. Each area is made up of a total of 100 organisms, drawn from combinations of ten species, A to J. Table 4.1 shows data of the investigation. To compare biodiversity in two sites, students decided to use the Simpson index.

Table 4.1 Species composition of two different communities.

Species

Grassland

Disturbed steppe

A

10

72

B

9

6

C

11

3

D

10

3

E

8

0

F

12

4

G

10

4

H

11

5

I

10

0

J

9

3

Total

100

100

The formula for determining the Simpson’s index is presented below.

n = number of individuals of each species present in the sample

N = the total number of all individuals of all species

  • Simpson’s Index of Diversity for grassland was calculated, D=0.899. Calculate the Simpson’s index of diversity for disturbed steppe using table 4.2

Table 4.2

Species

Disturbed steppe

2

n

A

72

B

6

C

3

D

3

E

0

F

4

G

4

H

5

I

0

J

3

Total

N =100

∑=

Simpson’s Index of Diversity for grassland =0.899

Simpson’s Index of Diversity for disturbed steppe =

  • Draw a conclusion about biodiversity and ecosystem stability in these two areas.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Explainsthe

relationship between biodiversityand ecosystem resilience.

1

calculates the species richness;

compares the species richness of three area;

states the conclusion about area with larger

richness;

1

1

1

2

compares the species evenness of two fields;

identifies the dominant species;

states the conclusion about area with larger

richness;

states the conclusion about ecosystem stability

with links to species evenness;

1

1

1

2

Uses chi-sqared test to investigate ecosystem.

3

calculates the chi-squared test;

states a null hypothesis;

states the conclusion about null hypothesis;

4

1

2

Uses Simpson’s index

toinvestigate ecosystem.

4

calculates the Simpson’s index;

states the conclusion about species diversity and

ecosystem stability.

3

2

Total marks

20

 A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Biosphere, ecosystem, population» Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Explains the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience.

Has difficulties in explanation of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience.

Makes mistakes in explanation of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience.

Explains the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem resilience.

Useschi-sqaredtestto investigate ecosystem.

Has difficulties in using the chi-sqared test to investigate ecosystem.

Makes mistakes in using the chi-sqared test to investigate ecosystem.

Uses chi-sqared test to investigate ecosystem.

UsesSimpson’sindexto investigate ecosystem.

Has difficulties in using the Simpson’s index to investigate ecosystem.

Makes mistakes in using the Simpson’s index to investigate ecosystem.

Uses Simpson’s index to investigate ecosystem.

Summative assessment for the unit «Ecology and the impact of human activities on the environment»

Learning objectives

        • - predict the effects of possible global warming;
        • - suggest ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.

Assessment criteria

Student:

  • Predicts the effects of possible global warming;
  • Suggests ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension, Application,

Higher order thinking skills.

Test run time

20 minutes

Tasks

  • Figure 1 shows atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. They were started by C. David Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in March of 1958. The solid line represents the general trend.

Figure 1

  • With reference to Figure 1, state the CO2 concentration in year 2000; include units.
  • Describe two possible outcomes of climate change for ocean wildlife.
  • Figure 2 shows the Graph showing that rising CO2 levels correlate with higher global temperatures. Global annual average temperature (as measured over both land and oceans) has increased by >1.5°F (0.8°C) since 1880 (through 2012).

Figure 2

  • Explain the relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature increase.
  • Describe two possible effects of global warming.
  • The Aral Sea is considered to be an example of ecosystem collapse. The ecosystems of the Aral Sea and the river deltas feeding into it have been nearly destroyed, not least because of the much higher salinity. The receding sea has left huge plains covered with salt and toxic chemicals resulting from weapons testing, industrial projects, and pesticides and fertilizer runoff. Figure 3 shows shrinking of Aral sea for 54 years.

Figure 3.1

In 1987, the continuing shrinkage split the lake into two separate bodies of water, the North Aral Sea (the Lesser Sea, or Small Aral Sea) and the South Aral Sea (the Greater Sea, or Large Aral Sea).

In August 2005, the Dike Kok-Aral was built (labelled on fig. 3.1, presented on fig. 3.2). Dike Kok-Aral is a dam across a narrow stretch of the Aral Sea, splitting off the North Aral Sea from the much larger South Aral Sea.

The dam has caused the small Aral's sea level to rise swiftly to 38m, from a low of less than 30m. Economically significant stocks of fish have returned, and partly revivs the fishing industry and producing a catch for export. The sea, which had receded almost 100 kilometres south of the port-city of Aralsk, is now a mere 12 kilometres away as of 2015. The dam suspended the flow of the Syrdarya into the South Sea and accelerated its drying.

Figure 3.2

  • Briefly describe the two positive and one negative effects of the construction of the Dike Kok-Aral.
  • Suggest the possible solutions to the disaster of the Aral Sea.
  • Desertification, erosion and overgrazing are serious problems in Kazakhstan. Desertification has eliminated substantial tracts of agricultural land. Wind erosion has had an impact in the northern and central parts of the republic because of the introduction of wide-scale dryland wheat farming. In the 1950s and 1960s, much soil was lost when vast tracts of Kazakhstan's prairies were plowed under as part of Khrushchev's Virgin Lands agricultural project.

By the mid-1990s, an estimated 60 percent of the republic's pastureland was in various stages of desertification.

Suggest the possible solutions to the desertification in Kazakhstan.

Assessment criteria

 № of question

Descriptor

Student

Mark

Predicts the effects of

possibleglobal warming.

1

determines the necessary values according to the

graph;

determines the unit of measurement from the

graph;

describes possible outcomes of climate change for

ocean wildlife;

1

1

2

2

describes the effect of carbon dioxide on the

atmosphere;

establishes a relationship between CO2 emissions and temperature increase;

describes possible effects of global warming;

1

2

2

Suggests ways to solve the environmental problemsof

Kazakhstan.

3

4

describesthetwopositiveeffectsofthe

construction of the Dike Kokaral;

describes the negative effect of the construction of

the Dike Kok-Aral;

suggests the possible solutions to the disaster of

the Aral Sea;

suggeststhepossiblesolutionstothe

desertification.

2

1

2

2

Total marks

16

A rubric for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for unit «Ecology and human impact on the environment»

Student name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievement

Low

Predicts the effects of possible global warming.

Has difficulties in prediction the effects of possible global warming.

Makes mistakes in prediction the effects of possible global warming.

Predicts the effects of possible global warming.

Suggests ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.

Has difficulties in suggestion the ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.

Makes mistakes in suggestion the ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.

Suggests ways to solve the environmental problems of Kazakhstan.


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