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Methodological recommendations for Summative Assessment on the subject «Chemistry»

(Natural Sciences and Mathematics direction)

Grade 11

 Methodological recommendations for Summative Assessment are designed to assist teachers in planning, organizing and carrying out Summative Assessment in “Chemistry” for the Grade 11 learners. Methodological recommendations are aligned with the Subject Programme and Course plan. Summative Assessment Tasks for each unit will allow teachers to determine the level of the learning objectives achievement planned for the term. Methodological recommendations comprise tasks, assessment criteria with descriptors and marks for conducting Summative Assessment across the unit. This document includes possible levels of the learners’ academic achievement (rubrics).

Tasks with descriptors and marks can be considered as recommendations.

 Methodological recommendations are designed for secondary school teachers, school administrations, educational departments’ seniors, regional and school coordinators in criteria-based assessment and others.

 Free Internet resources such as pictures, cartoons, photos, texts, video and audio materials, etc. have been used in designing these Methodological recommendations.

Contents

Summative assessment for the unit 11.4 C “Creating new substances and materials”, 11.4D Green Chemistry

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TERM 1

Summative assessment for unit 11.1.A ‘Aromatic compounds’

Learning objectives

11.4.2.12

11.4.2.13

11.4.2.15

11.4.2.16

Explain the structure of the benzene molecule

Write the reactions for producing benzene and its homologues

Write addition reactions for benzene and its homologues

Explain the mechanism of benzene nitration and halogenation reactions

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Explain the structure and bonding in a benzene molecule
  • Write the reactions for producing benzene and its homologues
  • Write addition reactions for benzene with chlorine in the presence of ultraviolet light
  • Outline electrophilic substitution mechanism between the electrophile and benzene by including all relevant curly arrows and partial charges

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

20 minutes

Task

1.

Describe the structure and bonding in a benzene molecule.

2.

Benzene is prepared from ethyne by the process of cyclic polymerization.

  • Write a chemical equation for this process.
  • Methylbenzene is the first homologue of benzene.
    • Write an equation of obtaining methylbenzene from benzene by Friedel‐Crafts alkylation.
    • Which catalyst is used in this reaction?
  • Benzene readily undergoes addition reaction in the presence of ultraviolet light (but without a catalyst present), hot benzene will also undergo an addition reaction with chlorine or bromine.

Write an addition reaction of the reaction of benzene with chlorine.

  • Nitrobenzene can be prepared from benzene as shown.

3.

Concentrated sulfuric acid catalyses this reaction.

  • Write an equation to show how H2SO4 generates the electrophile needed in this reaction.
  • Draw the mechanism of the reaction

between the electrophile and benzene to form nitrobenzene. Include all relevant curly arrows and charges.

  • Toluene and benzene are in the same homologues series. Toluene reacts about 25 times faster in nitration reaction than benzene under identical conditions.

Explain why toluene is more reactive than benzene.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

1

describes six carbon atoms bonded in a

hexagonal ring;

1

Explain the structure and bonding in a benzene molecule

describes all carbon-carbon bond lengths that

are equal;

describes each carbon bonded to 2 carbons

and 1 hydrogen;

1

1

describes delocalized π-system;

1

2

writesabalancedequationforthe

1

Write the reactions for producing benzene and its homologs

preparation of benzene from ethyne;

writesanequationofobtaining

methylbenzene from benzene;

identifies the catalyst used;

1

1

3

writes an equation to show how H2SO4

1

Outline the electrophilic substitutionmechanism between the electrophile and benzene by including all relevant curly arrows and charges

generates the electrophile;

shows curly arrow starting from ring to

electrophile;

draws the correct intermediate with half-

circle inside hexagon and positive charge in the middle;

1

1

shows loss of H+ with a curly arrow from

1

C–H bond back to ring;

Total marks

11

 Rubric on the result of Summative Assessment for unit 11.1.A “Aromatic compounds” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Explains the structure and bonding in a benzene molecule

Experiences difficulties in explaining the structure and bonding in benzene

Makes some mistakes in referring to six carbon atoms in a ring/ referring to the equality of C-C bonds length/ referring to atoms attached to carbon/ referring to delocalized π-system

Fully explains the structure and bonding in benzene

Writes the reactions for producing benzene and its homologs

Experiences difficulties in writing the reactions for producing benzene and its homologs

Makes some mistakes in writing an equation of preparation of benzene/ writing and equation of preparation of methylbenzene/ identifying the catalyst

Correctly writes the reactions for producing benzene and its homologs

Outlines the electrophilic substitution mechanism between the electrophile and benzene by including all relevant curly arrows and partial charges

Experiences difficulties in drawing electrophilic substitution mechanism between the electrophile and benzene by including all relevant curly arrows and charges

Makes some mistakes in writing the reaction of production of electrophile/ showing curly arrows/ drawing the intermediate/ showing loss of H+

Correctly outlines the electrophilic substitution mechanism between the electrophile and benzene by including all relevant curly arrows and charges

Summative assessment for the unit 11.1B ‘Carbonyl compounds’

Learning objectives

11.4.2.2

11.4.2.4

11.4.2.5

11.4.2.6

11.4.2.8

Draw structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones, name them according to the IUPAC nomenclature Conduct an experiment to identify aldehydes and ketones

Name the products of oxidation and reduction of aldehydes and ketones

Provideexamplesofnucleophilicadditionof aldehydes and ketones

Write equations for reactions characteristic of the chemical properties of

carboxylic acids

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Draw the structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones and name them according to the IUPAC nomenclature
  • Distinguish between aldehyde and ketones using test results
  • Write equations of oxidation and reduction of aldehydes
  • Write an equation of nucleophilic addition reaction of ketones and outline the mechanism
  • Write equations to demonstrate the chemical properties of carboxylic acids

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and understanding Application

Duration

20 minutes

Tasks

1.

A and B are structural isomers with the molecular formula C3H6O that are carbonyl compounds. Draw the structural formulae of A, B and name them.

AB

2.

Consider the following pair of isomers.

Suggest the test that can be used to distinguish between isomers E and F and describe the observations.

3.

Provide equations for the reactions of CH3CHO with each of acidified potassium dichromate

  • and sodium tetrahydroborate (III), NaBH4, using [O] or [H] as appropriate.
    • reaction with acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
    • reaction with NaBH4

4.

Propanone, CH3COCH3, undergoes a reaction with hydrogen cyanide, HCN.

  • Write an equation for the reaction of CH3COCH3 with HCN and name the product.
  • Outline a mechanism for the reaction of CH3COCH3 with HCN. Include all necessary curly arrows, lone pairs and charges.

5.

A series of reactions based on propanoic acid is shown:

  • Write an equation for reaction 1, using [H] to represent the reducing agent.
  • Write an equation for the reaction of propanoic acid with calcium carbonate, CaCO3.
  • Suggest a suitable reagent and conditions for reaction 3.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Draw the structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones and name them according to the IUPAC nomenclature

1

draws structural formula of isomer A;

names the isomer A;

draws structural formula of isomer B;

names isomer B;

1

1

1

1

Distinguishbetween aldehyde and ketones using test results

2

suggests a test that can be used to distinguish

between isomers A and B;

describes the observation of the given tests;

1

1

Writeequationsfor oxidation and reduction of

aldehydes

3

constructs equation with acidified potassium

dichromate;

constructs equation with NaBH4;

1

1

Write an equation for the nucleophilicaddition reaction of ketones and outline the mechanism

4

constructs an equation of ketone with HCN;

names the product of reaction;

shows curly arrow from lone pair of a

nucleophile to electron-deficient carbon;

correctly draws the structure of intermediate;

shows curly arrow from lone pair on negative

oxygen onto hydrogen +) on the water;

1

1

1

1

1

Write equations to demonstrate the chemical properties of carboxylic acids

5

writesequationforthereductionof

propanoic acid;

writes an equation for the reaction of

propanoic acid with calcium carbonate;

suggests suitable reagent for esterification

reaction;

suggests suitable conditions for esterification

reaction.

1

1

1

1

Total marks

17

Rubric on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.1B Carbonyl compounds’

Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Draw the structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones and name them according to the IUPAC nomenclature

Experiences difficulties in drawing the structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones and naming them according to the IUPAC

nomenclature

Makes some mistakes in drawing the structural formulae of isomer A/ drawing structural formulae of isomer B/ naming isomer A/ naming isomer B

Draws the structural formulae of aldehydes and ketones correctly and names them according to the IUPAC nomenclature

Distinguish between aldehyde and ketones using test results

Experiences difficulties in suggesting tests that can be used to distinguish between aldehyde and ketone

Makes some mistakes in suggesting test to distinguish carbonyl compounds/ describing the test observations

Provides a test that can be used to distinguish between aldehyde and ketone

Write equations for oxidation and reduction of aldehydes

Experiences difficulties in writing equations for oxidation and reduction of aldehydes

Makes some mistakes in writing equations for the oxidation of aldehydes/ writing equations for the reduction of aldehydes

Correctly constructs equations for oxidation and reduction of aldehydes

Write an equation for the nucleophilic addition reaction of ketones and outline the mechanism

Experiences difficulties in writing the equation for nucleophilic addition reaction of ketones and outlining the mechanism

Makes some mistakes in constructing an equation of ketone with HCN/ naming the products/ showing curly arrows from the nucleophile to carbon/ drawing intermediate/ showing curly arrows from lone pair to hydrogen

Writes the equation for nucleophilic addition reaction of ketones and correctly outlines the mechanism

Write equations to demonstrate the chemical properties of carboxylic acids

Experiences difficulties in writing equations to demonstrate the chemical properties of carboxylic acids

Makes some mistakes in writing an equation on the reduction of propanoic acid/ writing equations for the reaction of propanoic acid with carbonates/ suggesting reagent for esterification/ suggesting conditions for esterification

Correctly constructs equations to demonstrate the chemical properties of carboxylic acids

TERM 2

Summative assessment for chapter 11.2 A “Amines and amino acids”

Learning objectives

11.5.1.4

Compare main properties of ammonia, amine, and

aniline

11.5.1.5

Describe the mechanism of amine formation by

nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes and reduction

of nitriles

11.5.1.7

Know the trivial and systematic names of amino acids

11.5.1.10

Explain how amino acids can form bipolar ions

11.5.1.12

Explain how peptide bonds are formed in the

production of protein from 𝛼 amino acids

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Compare and explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their structure
  • Write equations for the formation of amine by nucleophilic substitution and reduction, outline a mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution reaction
  • Give the systematic name of amino acids
  • Draw the structure of zwitterion
  • Draw the structure of dipeptide

Level of thinking skills

Application

Higher-order thinking skills

Duration

25 minutes

Tasks

1.

Describe and explain how the basicity of ammonia, ethylamine and phenylamine differ:

2.

The amino ethane can be prepared by two different routes.

  • Write an equation for the reaction of chloroethane with excess ammonia to form amino ethane and outline a mechanism for the reaction.
  • Amino ethane can also be prepared by a reduction reaction. Identify a starting compound that can be used to prepare aminoethane by reduction, give the necessary reagent and write an equation for the reaction.

3.

The formulae of two amino acids, glycine (Gly) and alanine (Ala) are given here: glycine is H2NCH2COOH, alanine is H2NCH (CH3) COOH.

Give the systematic names of both amino acids.

4.

The amino acids glycine and alanine can combine to form a dipeptide.

Draw the structure of the dipeptide ‘gly-ala’ and show the formation of zwitterion.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Compare and explain relativebasicity ammonia, ethylamine, phenylamine in terms their structure;

 the of and of

1

compares the difference in the basicity of

ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine;

explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their

structure;

1

1

Write equations for the formation of amine by nucleophilic substitution and reduction, outline a mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution reaction;

2

writes equation for the formation of amine by

nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes;

shows curly arrow from lone pair of nucleophile to electron-deficient carbon;

shows correct dipole and curly arrow from C–

Br bond to Br-;

shows correctly the structure of products;

identifies a starting compound that can be used

to prepare aminoethane by reduction;

gives the necessary reagent;

writes equation for the formation of amine by

reduction of nitriles;

1

a

1

1

1

1

1

Give the systematic name of amino acids;

3

gives correct systematic name of glycine;

gives correct systematic name of alanine;

1

1

Drawthe

dipeptide

Drawthe

zwitterion.

structure

structure

of

of

4

draws the correct structure of the dipeptide

‘gly-ala’;

draws the structure of the zwitterion of serine.

1

1

Total marks

13

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.2 A “Amines and amino acids” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Compare and explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their structure.

Experiences difficulties in comparing and explaining the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their structure.

Makes some mistakes in comparing the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their structure/ and explaining it;

Compares and explains the relative basicity of ammonia, ethylamine, and phenylamine in terms of their structure.

Write equations for the formation of amine by nucleophilic substitution and reduction; outline a mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution reaction.

Experiences difficulties in writing equations for the formation of amine by nucleophilic substitution and reduction and outlining mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution reaction.

Makes some mistakes in writing equations for the formation of amine/ showing curly arrow from lone pair to carbon/ showing dipoles/ showing the structure of products/ identifying starting compound / identifying reagent of reduction reaction/ writing equation for the reduction of nitriles;

Writes equations for the formation of amine by nucleophilic substitution and reduction and outlines a mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution reaction.

Give the systematic name of amino acids.

Experiences difficulties in using the systematic name of amino acids.

Makes some mistakes in naming glycine/ naming alanine;

Confidently gives the systematic name of amino acids.

Drawthestructureof dipeptide.

Drawthestructureof zwitterion.

Experiences difficulties in drawing the structure of dipeptide and zwitterion.

Makes some mistakes in drawing dipeptide/ showing zwitterion structure.

Clearly draws the structure of dipeptide and zwitterion.

Summative assessment for the unit 11.2 B “Chemistry of life”

Learning objectives

11.5.1.16

11.5.1.21

11.5.1.29

11.5.1.27

11.5.1.34

Write equations for the reactions of alcohol, lactic acid, butyric fermentation of glucose

Differentiate primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of a protein

Describe DNA structure model

Explain the process of fermentative catalysis and the action of enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model Explain the toxic effect of heavy metals on living organisms

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Write equations for alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation of glucose
  • Complete the table to indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described
  • Name the blocks in a part of the DNA molecule
  • Explain the action of enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model
  • Explain the toxic effect of mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

15 minutes

Task

1.

Fermentation is a process including a series of chemical reactions to break down the glucose component to its basic contents with the help of yeast or bacteria.

  • Write an equation for the alcoholic fermentation of glucose.
  • Write an equation for the lactic acid fermentation of glucose.

2.

Proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, are two important polymers that occur within living organisms.

Proteins have a number of ‘levels’ of structure, namely: primary, secondary and tertiary. Complete the table to indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described.

FeatureLevel of structure

formation of α-helix formation of disulphide bonds formation of ionic bonds

linking amino acids

  • The diagram shows part of a DNA molecule. Study the diagram and give the correct names for the blocks labelled J, K, L, and M.

Block letter

Name

J

K

L

M

  • Enzymes are a special type of protein molecule that catalyse biochemical reactions. Explain briefly the mechanism by which an enzyme breaks down a substrate molecule.
  • Explain how do mercury ions, Hg+ ions affect the structure and function of enzymes.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Write equations of alcoholic

and lactic acid fermentation of glucose

1

writesanequationofthealcoholic

fermentation of glucose;

writesanequationofthelacticacid

fermentation of glucose;

1

1

Complete the table to

indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described

2

identifiesthelevelofthestructure

responsible for the formation of α-helix;

identifiesthelevelofthestructure

responsible for formation of disulphide bonds;

identifiesthelevelofthestructure

responsible for formation of ionic bonds;

identifiesthelevelofthestructure

responsible for linking amino acids;

1

1

1

1

Names the blocks in a part of

the DNA molecule

3

correctly names part J;

correctly names part K;

correctly names part L;

correctly names part M;

1

1

1

1

Explaintheactionof

enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model

4

describes substrate shape complementary to

active site;

describes substrate bonds to the active site;

1

1

Explain the toxic effect of

mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

5

describes mercury reaction with disulphide

bridges/links;

describes disrupting of the tertiary structure

of the enzymes/denaturation;

explains that active site cannot bind the

substrate/catalyse the reaction.

1

1

1

Total marks

15

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.2 B “Chemistry of life” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Write equations for alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation of glucose

Experiences difficulties in writing equations for alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation of glucose

Makes some mistakes in writing equations for alcoholic/ lactic acid fermentation of glucose

Writes equations for alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation of glucose

Complete the table to indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described

Experiences difficulties in completing the table to indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described

Makes some mistakes in describing α- helix/ disulphide bridge/ formation of ionic bond/ amino acid linkage

Correctly completes the table to indicate the level of the structure responsible for the features described

Names the blocks in a part of the DNA molecule

Experiences difficulties in naming the blocks in a part of the DNA molecule

Makes some mistakes in naming block J/ block K/ block L/ block M

Names the blocks in a part of the DNA molecule correctly

Explain the action of enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model

Experiences difficulties in explaining the action of enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model

Makes some mistakes in referring to the complementary shape of substrate/ referring bonding of substrate to active cite

Clearly explains the action of enzymes using the «Lock and Key» model

Explain the toxic effect of mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

Experiences difficulties in explaining the toxic effect of mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

Makes some mistakes in explaining the toxic effect of mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

Clearly explains the toxic effect of mercury ions on the structure and function of enzymes

Summative assessment for the unit 11.2 C “Synthetic polymers”

Learning objectives11.4.2.19 Distinguish between the concepts of “monomer”,

“repeating unit”, “oligomer”, “polymer”, “polymerization degree”

        • Write equations of the polycondensation reaction set up
        • Understand that polymers produced by (poly)condensation can hydrolyse and are biodegradable
        • Name the properties and fields of polymers application; polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, teflon, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyester, phenol-formaldehyde resins, and of plastics on their basis

11.4.2.26 Describe the process of recycling polymers

Assessment criteriaA learner is able to…

  • Match definitions with its related term
  • Write an equation to represent the formation of the condensation polymers
  • List properties of polymethyl methacrylate and give uses linked to each of these properties
  • State and explain that condensation polymers degrade in the environment
  • Evaluate the process of recycling polymers

Level of thinking skillsKnowledge and comprehension

Application

Duration20 minutes

Task

  • Match each definition with its related term by entering the appropriate letter in the space provided.

(i) monomer

A

an elementary unit which periodically repeats itself

along the polymeric chain

(ii) oligomer

B

a small, reactive molecule that reacts to make long-

chain molecules.

(iii) polymer

C

the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule

or polymer

(iv) repeating unit

D

low molecular weight polymers (Mr = 500-5000)

(v)polymerization

degree

E

a long-chain molecule made up of many repeating

units

  • Write an equation to represent the formation of the condensation polymers from the following monomers.
    • benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid with 1,2-diaminoethane
    • ethanedioic acid with ethane-1,2-diol

3.

List two properties of (poly)methylmethacrylate and give one application related to each of these properties.

4.

Most condensation polymers degrade naturally in the environment. State and explain how condensation polymers degrade in the environment.

5.

The disposal of polymers causes environmental damage. Once polymers have been used up, they become waste.

  • Outline three ways in which waste polymers can be usefully processed.
  • Give two reasons why additional polymers should be reused or recycled rather than just thrown away.

State, giving examples, two other ways in which scientists have minimised the environmental damage caused by polymers.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Match definitions with its related term

1

correctly matches the term ‘monomer’ with

its definition;

correctly matches term ‘polymer’ with its

definition;

correctly matches the term ‘oligomer’ with

its definition;

correctly matches the term ‘repeating unit’

with its definition;

correctly matches the term ‘polymerization

degree’ with its definition;

1

1

1

1

1

Write an equation to represent the formation of the condensation polymers

2

writes an equation to represent the formation of the condensation polymers between benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid with 1,2- diaminoethane;

writes an equation to represent the formation of the condensation polymers ethanedioic

acid with ethane-1,2-diol;

1

1

List two properties of polymethyl methacrylate and give one use linked to each of these properties

3

describesone

polymethylmethacrylate;

describestwo

polymethylmethacrylate;

gives one application related to the first

property;

gives one application related to the second

property;

property

properties

1

1

of

of

1

1

State and explain that condensation polymers degrade in the environment

4

statesthat

hydrolysed;

describes the ester /amide link;

condensation

1

polymers

are

1

Evaluatetheprocess recycling polymers

of

5

describeslandfill,incineration,and

recycling;

describesenergygenerationfrom

combustion;

describes

recycling;

describesdevelopingbiodegradable

polymers;

describes developing ways of sorting and

recycling polymers.

1

1

feedstockfor

1

1

Total marks

18

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.2 C “Synthetic polymers” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Match definitions with its related term

Experiences difficulties in matching definitions with its related term

Makes some mistakes in matching definitions with terms monomer/ polymer/ oligomer/ repeating unit/ polymerization

Matches correctly definitions with its related term

Write equations to represent the formation of thecondensation polymers

Experiences difficulties in writing equations to represent the formation of the condensation polymers

Makes some mistakes in writing equations to represent the formation of nitrogen-

containingpolymers/oxygen-containing polymers

Write equations correctly to represent the formation of the condensation polymers

List two properties of polymethyl methacrylate and give one use linked to each of these properties

Experiences difficulties in listing two propertiesofpolymethyl methacrylate / giving one use linked to each of these properties

Makes some mistakes in listing one property of polymethylmethacrylate / anotherpropertyof polymethylmethacrylate/ giving one application/ giving another application

Lists two properties of polymethyl methacrylate correctly and gives one use linked to each of these properties

State and explain that condensation polymers degradeinthe

environment

Experiences challenge in explaining that condensation polymers degrade in the environment

Makessomemistakesinstatingthat condensation polymersare hydrolysed/

referring to amide links

Explains that condensation polymers degrade in the environment

Evaluate the process of recycling polymers

Experiences difficulties in evaluating the process of recycling polymers

Makes some mistakes in explaining landfill/ energy/ feedstock/ development of biodegradable polymers/ the development

Properly evaluates the proce

recycling polymers

of ways of sorting

TERM 3

Summative assessment for the chapter 11.3A ‘Organic synthesis’

Learning objectives

11.4.2.44

Solve experimental problems on the identification of

substances by their physical and chemical properties

11.4.2.42

Recognize the functional groups of substances using

the qualitative reactions

11.4.2.46

Carry out the simplest organic synthesis and evaluate

product yield

11.4.2.47

Draft and solve tasks on transformation chains based on

the genetic relationship between organic substances

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Identify the structural formulae of isomers by their physical and chemical properties
  • Predict the structure of the compound based on test results for functional groups
  • Carry out the simplest organic synthesis and evaluate product yield
  • Solve tasks on transformation chains based on the genetic relationship between organic substances

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Higher-order thinking

Duration

15 minutes

Task

1.

A, B, and C are all structural isomers with the molecular formula C4H8O.

A, B and C all give an orange precipitate when treated with 2,4-DNPH but only A and B give a brick-red precipitate when warmed with Fehling’s solution.

Isomer A has a slightly higher boiling point than B.

  • Draw the structural formulae of A, B, and C.
  • Explain why Isomer A has slightly higher boiling point than B.

2.

A student reacted together an alcohol and a carboxylic acid under appropriate conditions to produce an ester. A sweet smelling organic liquid, Q, with the molecular formula C4H8O2 was produced.

A sample of Q was hydrolysed by heating with aqueous sulfuric acid.

The resulting mixture was heated under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate (VI) to give a single organic product, R.

The product, R, was collected and subjected to the following tests. The first sample of R gave no reaction with Tollens’ reagent.

The second sample of R gave no reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. The third sample of R gave effervescence with sodium carbonate.

  • What does the result of the test with Tollens’ reagent show about R?
  • What does the result of the test with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent show about R?
  • What functional group does the result of the test with sodium carbonate show to be present in R?
  • Deduce the structure of the single organic compound, R.

3.

The amine CH3CH2CH2NH2 can be prepared by two different routes.

Route A is a two-stage process and starts from CH3CH2Br.

Route B is a one-stage process and starts from CH3CH2CH2Br.

  • Write an equation for the preparation of CH3CH2CH2NH2 by route B
  • Give one disadvantage of route A and one disadvantage of route B

4.

Consider the following reaction scheme, which leads to the formation of two compounds

V and W.

С2Н6 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛1C2H5Cl 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 2 V 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 3C2H4O2

NaOH(alc)Reaction 5

WCH3COOCH3

  • Suggest the structures of V and W.
  • Give the reagent(s) and condition(s) for the reaction 2.
  • Write balanced equations of each reaction 1 and reaction 5.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Identify the structural formulae of isomers by their physical and chemical properties

1

correctly identifies the structure of isomer A;

correctly identifies the structure of isomer B;

correctly identifies the structure of isomer C;

refers to contact point / branched-chain;

1

1

1

1

Predict the structure of the compound based on test results for functional groups

2

correctly shows the result of the test with

Tollens’ reagent;

correctly shows the result of the test with 2,4-

dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent;

correctly shows the result of the test with

sodium carbonate;

deduces the structure of organic compound R;

1

1

1

1

Carry out the simplest organic synthesis and evaluate product yield

3

writes an equation for the preparation of

CH3CH2CH2NH2 by route B;

suggests one disadvantage of Route A ;

suggests one disadvantage of Route B;

1

1

1

Solvetaskson transformation chains based on the genetic relationship between organic substances

4

deduces the structure of V;

deduces the structure of W;

suggests the reagent(s) for the reaction 2;

suggests the condition(s) for the reaction 2;

writes balanced equation for each reaction 1;

writes a balanced equation for each reaction 5.

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total marks

17

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.3 A ‘Organic synthesis’ Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Identify the structural formulae of isomers by their physical and chemical properties

Experiences difficulties in identifying the structural formulae of isomers by their physical and

chemical properties;

Makes some mistakes in identifying the structure of A/ structure of B/ structure of C/ referring to contact points;

Identifies correctly the structural formulae of isomers by their physical and chemical properties;

Predict the structure of the compound based on test results for functional groups

Experiences difficulties in predicting the structure of compound based on test results for functional groups;

Makes some mistakes in predicting test results with Tollens’ reagent/ with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine/ with carbonate/ the structure of compound R;

Predicts correctly the structure of compound based on test results for functional groups;

Carry out the simplest organic synthesis and evaluate product yield

Experiences difficulties in conducting the simplest organic synthesis /evaluating product yield;

Makes some mistakes in writing the equation for the route B/ suggesting disadvantage of route A/ suggesting disadvantage of route B;

Conducts the simplest organic synthesis and evaluates product yield;

Solve tasks on transformation chains based on the genetic relationship between organic substances

Experiences difficulties in solving tasks on transformation chains based on the genetic relationship between organic substances.

Makes some mistakes in deducing the structure of V/ structure of W/ suggesting reagents for the reaction 2/ suggesting the conditions for the reaction 2/ writing balanced equation for reaction 1/ writing balanced equation for reaction 5;

Solves tasks on transformation chains based on the genetic relationship between organic substances properly.

Summative assessment for the unit 11.3B “Group 14 elements”, 11.3 C “Nitrogen and Sulphur”

Learning objectives

11.2.1.1

Explain the regularities of changes in physical and

chemical properties of 14 (IV) group elements

11.2.1.4

Predict relative stability of compounds of group 14 (IV)

elements with oxidation states (+2) and (+4) in aqueous

solutions

11.2.1.8

Explain bond formation mechanism in ammonium ion;

11.2.1.12

Analyse the impact of nitrogen oxides on the

atmosphere, nitrates on soil and water resources

11.2.1.19

Explain the contact process in the manufacture of

11.2.1.18

sulfuric acid

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • State and explain the trend in the melting point of 14 (IV) group elements
  • Determine the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 and +4 change down the group
  • Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of the ammonium ion
  • Evaluate the environmental consequences of nitrates on soil and water resources
  • Explain the effect of increasing pressure on the Contact process in terms of equilibrium and reaction kinetics

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

25 minutes

Task

1.

The melting points of some Group IV elements are given below.

ElementMelting point /K

C3925

Si1683

Ge1210

Sn505

State and explain how the trend in melting point is related to the structure and bonding in these elements.

2.

Describe how the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 change down the group. Give an example to justify your answer.

3.

Ammonium nitrate is an important fertilizer made by the acid-base reaction between ammonia and nitric acid.

Draw a dots-and-crosses diagram of the ammonium ion. Show the outer electrons only.

4.

The use of nitrate fertilizers can give rise to environmental consequences in terms of effects on both rivers and the atmosphere.

Explain how the uncontrolled use of nitrate fertilizers can result in a severe reduction in water quality in rivers.

5.

SO3 is produced by the reaction between SO2 and O2 in the contact process. A dynamic equilibrium is established.

2SO2(g) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)

Explain why increasing the total pressure, at constant temperature, increases the rate of production of SO3 and increases the yield of SO3.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

State and explain the trend in the melting point of 14 (IV) group elements

1

statesthetrendinmelting pointdown

Group(IV);

refers to the structure;

refers to the type of bond;

1

1

1

Determine the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 and +4 change down the

group

2

refers to the stability of +2 state increases down

the group;

justifies answer with an example/equation;

1

1

Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of the ammonium ion

3

shows all covalently bonded electrons in ammonium ion;

shows a lone pair in ammonium ion;

1

1

Evaluate the environmental consequences of nitrates on soil and water resources

4

refers to the eutrophication;

refers to the fact that all oxygen is consumed

while the decomposition of plants;

refers to a lack of oxygen/sunlight;

1

1

1

Explain the effect of increasing pressure on the Contact process in terms of equilibrium and reaction

kinetics

5

explains the effect of increasing pressure on the

rate of reaction.

explains the effect of increasing pressure to yield.

1

1

Total marks

12

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.3B “Group 14 elements”, 11.3 C “Nitrogen and Sulfur” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

State and explain the trend in the melting point of 14 (IV) group elements

Experiences difficulties in stating the trend in melting point down Group 14 and makes mistakes in explaining the pattern

Makes some mistakes in stating the trend/ explanation referring to structure/ referring to the bond type

States and explains the trend of changes in physical and chemical properties of Group 14

Determine the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 and +4 change down the group

Experiences difficulties in explaining the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 and +4 change down the group

Makes some mistakes in referring to the stability of +2 ox.state / giving an example

Correctly explains the relative stabilities of the Group 14 oxides in oxidation states+2 and +4 change down the group

Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of the ammonium ion

Experiences difficulties in drawing a dot- and-cross diagram of the ammonium ion

Makes some mistakes in showing all electrons/ showing a lone pair

Draws a dot-and-cross diagram of the ammonium ion

Evaluate the environmental consequences of nitrates on soil and water resources

Experiences difficulties in evaluating the environmental consequences of nitrates on soil and water resources

Makes some mistakes in referring to the eutrophication/ referring to the decomposition of plants/ referring to lack of oxygen

Completelyevaluatesthe environmental consequences of nitrates on soil and water resources

Explain the effect of increasing pressure on the Contact process in terms of equilibrium and reaction kinetics

Experiences difficulties in explaining the effect of increasing pressure in the Contact process in terms of equilibrium and reaction kinetics

Makes some mistakes in explaining the effect of pressure on the rate/ explaining the effect of pressure to yield

Explains the effect of increasing pressure in the Contact process in terms of equilibrium and reaction kinetics

Summative assessment for the unit 11.3 D “Acid and base solutions”

Learning objectives

11.3.4.1

Describe the theories of Arrhenius, Lewis, Brønsted-

Lowry and explain the areas of their use

11.3.4.2

Know the value of the ionic product of water

11.3.4.3

Understand that pH index is –lg[H+] and convert pH of a

solution to [H+] concentration and vice versa

11.3.4.4

Calculate pH of a strong acid and a strong base

11.3.4.5

Explain how buffer solutions work

11.3.4.9

Make calculations using the titration results

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Compose equations according to Brønsted-Lowry theory
  • Write an expression for Kw and explain the variation of Kw with temperature
  • Write an expression for the pH and convert the pH of a solution to [H+]
  • Calculate the pH of a strong base
  • Explain how buffer solutions maintain the pH of the blood
  • Calculate the unknown concentration of alkali from the titration data

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

15 minutes

Task

1.

Using the symbol HZ to represent a Brønsted-Lowry acid, write equations that show the following substances acting as Brønsted-Lowry bases.

  • NH3+
  • CH3OH+

2.

Kw is the ionic product of water.

  • Write an expression for Kw.
  • Kw varies with temperature as shown in the table.

Temperature / °C Kw / mol2 dm−6

251.00 × 10−14

505.48 × 10−14

Explain why the value of Kw increases as the temperature increases.

3.

A sample of hydrochloric acid has a pH of 2.34.

Write an expression for pH and calculate the concentration of this acid.

4.

Calculate the pH of the solution obtained when 3.10g of sodium oxide is added to 400 cm3 of water.

5.

Buffer solutions are used to regulate the pH of a solution to keep its pH value within a narrow range.

Briefly explain, by means of equation, how the pH of blood is controlled.

6.

25.0 cm3 of a solution of sodium hydroxide required 18.8 cm3 of 0.0500 mol dm-3 H2SO4 for neutralisation. Find the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution in mol dm-3.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Composeequations according to Brønsted- Lowry theory

1

writes an equation to show how NH3 acts as a base;

writes an equation to show how CH3OH acts as a base;

1

1

Write an expression for Kw and explain the variation of Kw with temperature

2

writes an expression for Kw;

writes that dissociation is endothermic

refers to equilibrium shifts

1

1

1

Write an expression for the pH and convert the pH of a solution to [H+]

3

writes an expression for the pH.

converts the pH of a solution to [H+].

1

1

Calculate the pH of a strong base

4

calculates a mole of Na2O.

calculates the concentration of [OH-].

converts concentration of OH- ions to pH.

1

1

1

Explain how buffer solutions maintain the ph of the blood

5

explains that blood contain HCO3 –

explainsthatHCO3adsorbOH-/ appropriate equation.

explainsthattheHCO3adsorb H+/appropriate equation.

1

1

1

Calculate the unknown concentration of alkali from the titration data

6

writes a neutralization reaction.

calculates the mole of acid.

calculates the unknown concentration of

alkali.

1

1

1

Total marks

16

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.3 D “Acid and base solutions” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Compose equations according to Brønsted-Lowry theory

Experiences difficulties in composing equations according to Brønsted- Lowry theory

Makes some mistakes in writing an equation with NH3/ writing an equation with CH3OH

Composes equations according to Brønsted-Lowry theory

Write an expression for Kw and explain the variation of Kw with temperature

Experiences difficulties in writing an expression for Kw/ explaining the variation of Kw with temperature

Makes some mistakes in writing an expression for Kw/ referring to endothermic reaction/ referring to equilibrium shift

Writes an expression for Kw and explains fully the variation varies of Kw with temperature

Write an expression for the pH and convert pH of a solution to [H+]

Experiences difficulties in writing an expression for the pH/ converting pH of a solution to [H+]

Makes some mistakes in writing an expression for the pH/converting pH of a solution to [H+]

Writes an expression for the pH and correctly converts the pH of a solution to [H+]

Calculate the pH of a strong base.

Experiences difficulties in calculating the pH of a strong base

Makes some mistakes in calculating the mole/ calculating pH of a strong base/ identifying concentration of OH-

Correctly calculates pH of a strong base

Explain how buffer solutions maintain the ph of the blood

Experiences difficulties in explaining with aid of equation, how buffer solutions maintain pH of blood

Makes some mistakes in referring to HCO3 – / referring that HCO3 – adsorb OH- / referring that HCO3 – adsorb OH-

Explains fully with aid of equation, how buffer solutions maintain pH of blood

Calculate the unknown concentration of alkali from the titration data

Experiences difficulties in calculating

the unknown concentration of alkali from the titration data

Makes some mistakes in writing a neutralization reaction/ calculating the mole/ calculating concentration

Calculates the unknown concentration of alkali from the titration data

TERM 4

Summative assessment for chapter 11.4 A “Metal production”

Learning objectives

11.2.3.2

Know composition of the most important alloys used in

science, technology, and household: cast iron, steel,

latten, bronze, cupronickel, duraluminium

11.2.3.4

Explain the metal productions methods by electrolysis

11.2.3.6

Study the principles of using galvanic coatings for

decorative purposes and corrosion protection

11.2.3.3

Describe cast iron and steel production methods and

their properties

11.2.3.8

Make a strong case for the need for materials recycling

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Match the alloy names with their compositions
  • Write equations for the anode and cathode reactions during the electrolysis
  • Explain the principles of using galvanic coatings for decorative purposes and corrosion protection
  • Explain the cast iron production methods
  • Explain why recycling of materials are environmentally and economically beneficial

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

20 minutes

Task

1.

Match the alloy names (left) with the compositions (right) by writing the number associated with a composition next to the correct alloy name.

  • Steel1) Cu and Sn
  • Latten2) Fe and C
  • Bronze3) Cu and Zn
  • Cupronickel4) Al, Cu, Mg and Mn
  • Duraluminium5) Cu and Ni

2.

Magnesium can be produced by electrolysis of magnesium chloride in a molten mixture of salts. Give equations of the anode and cathode reactions during the electrolysis of molten magnesium chloride, MgCl2.

3.

Metal objects can be electroplated with silver

  • Describe how a metal spoon can be electroplated with silver. Include:
    • what to use as the positive electrode and as the negative electrode
    • what to use as the electrolyte
    •  an ionic half-equation to show the formation of silver. You may include a diagram in your answer.
  • Give one reason why metal spoons are electroplated with silver.

4.

Iron is extracted from its ore, hematite (Fe2O3), in a blast furnace.

  • State two functions of the coke used in the blast furnace.
  • Write an equation for the conversion of hematite, Fe2O3, to iron.
  • Explain how the silica impurity is removed and separated from the molten iron.

5.

Explain why recycling of materials are environmentally and economically beneficial.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Match the alloy names with their compositions

1

correctly matches steel and its composition;

correctly matches latten and its composition;

correctly matches bronze and its composition;

correctlymatchescupronickelandits

composition;

correctlymatchesduraluminiumandits

composition;

1

1

1

1

1

Writeequationsforthe

anode and cathode reactions during the electrolysis

2

writes an equation of the cathode process;

writes an equation of the anode process;

1

1

Explain the principles of using galvanic coatings for decorative purposes and corrosion protection

3

indicates the uses of a positive electrode;

indicates the uses of a negative electrode;

indicates the uses of electrolyte;

writes ionic half-equation of the formation of

silver;

states the purpose of galvanic coating;

1

1

1

1

1

Explainthecastiron production methods

4

states two functions of coke in the blast

furnace;

writes an equation of the conversion of

hematite to iron;

determines how the silica impurity is removed;

1

1

1

Explain why recycling of materialsare

environmentallyand economically beneficial

5

explains the benefits of recyclingfrom an environmental purpose;

explainsthebenefitsofrecyclingfrom

economical purpose.

1

1

Total marks

17

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.4 A “Metal production” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Match the alloy names with their compositions

Experiences difficulties in matching thealloynameswiththeir

compositions

Makes some mistakes in matching alloy 1/ alloy 2/ alloy 3/ alloy 4/ alloy 5

Correctly matches the alloy names with their compositions

Write equations for the anode

and cathode reactions during the electrolysis

Experiencesdifficultiesinwriting

equations for the anode and cathode reactions during the electrolysis

Makes some mistakes in writing

equations for the anode/ writing an equation for cathode

Writes equations for the anode and

cathodereactionsduringthe electrolysis

Explain the principles of using

galvanic coatings for decorative purposes and corrosion protection

Experiences difficulties in explaining

the principles of using galvanic coatings for decorative purposes and corrosion protection

Makes some mistakes in indicating

positive electrode/ indicating negative electrode/ indicating use of electrolyte/ writing ionic equation/

stating purpose

Explains fully the principles of

using galvanic coatings for decorative purposes and corrosion protection with examples

Explain the cast iron production

methods

Experiences difficulties in explaining

the cast iron production methods

Makes some mistakes in stating two

functions/writinganequation/ determining impurity

Explains the cast iron production

methods

Summative assessment for the unit 11.4B “Transition metals”

Learning objectives

11.2.1.21

Explain which metals are transitional on the basis of

Ti–Cu atoms electronic structure

11.2.1.22

Know that the transition elements show variable

oxidation state

11.2.1.23

Explain the physical and chemical properties of

transition metals according to the atomic structure

11.2.1.24

Describe the structure of a complex compound

11.2.1.27

Explain that haemoglobin contains iron complexes (+2)

and understand their role in oxygen transportation

11.2.1.25

Describe the reactions of transition metals to produce

complexes, including copper complexes (+2) iron

complexes (+2, +3) with water and ammonia, and to

know their colour

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Explain how metals are characterized as a transition element based on their electronic configuration
  • Give two formulae of two iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states
  • Determine differences in the physical and chemical properties of transition metals from alkali metals
  • Defines the term ‘complex ion’ and draw the structure of complex ion
  • Explain the role of haemoglobin and poisoning by carbon monoxide
  • Compose the reactions of copper complexes with sodium hydroxide and ammonia, and determine the colour of the solution

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Higher-order thinking skills

Duration

20 minutes

Tasks

1.

Transition elements and their complexes have characteristic properties.

  • State the electronic configuration of the chromium atom.
  • Apart from its electronic structure, state two properties of chromium or its compounds that are characteristic of a transition element.

2.

Give two formulae of two iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states.

3.

Sodium and chromium both are metals.

(a)State one difference in the physical properties of chromium and sodium. (b)State one difference in the chemical properties of chromium and sodium.

4.

In terms of bonding, explain the meaning of the term complex ion.

(c)Draw the structure of the complex ion formed in a solution of Cr3+(aq).

5.

Patients are prescribed iron dietary supplement tablets to cure anaemia, which is a deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood.

The diagram below shows part of the structure of haemoglobin.

  • Describe the function of haemoglobin, and how the iron atoms it contains carry out that function.
  • Explain why even a small amount of CO in the bloodstream is poisonous.

6.

When NH3(aq) is added to [Cu (H2O) 6]2+ aq) , drop-wise at first and then in excess, two chemical

(

reactions occur as shown.

For each reaction, describe which

equation would you see and write.

Reaction1 observation Equation Reaction 2 Observation

Equation

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Explain how metals are

characterized as a transition element based on their electron configuration

1

states the electronic configuration of the

chromium atom;

refers to the formation of one or more stable

ions;

refers to the incomplete d-subshell;

1

1

1

Give two formulae of two

iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states

2

gives one formula of iron compounds;

gives two formulae of iron compounds with

different oxidation states;

1

1

Determine differences in the

physical and chemical properties of transition metals from alkali metals

3

states difference in the physical properties;

states difference in the chemical properties;

1

1

Define the term ‘complex

ion’ and draw the structure of complex ion

4

defines the term ‘complex ion’;

draws the structure of complex ion;

1

1

Explaintheroleof

haemoglobin and poisoning by carbon monoxide

5

refers to the oxygen transportation;

refers to the strong bonding with carbon

monoxide;

1

1

Compose the reactions of

copper complexes with sodium hydroxide and ammonia, and determine the colour of the solution

6

composes a balanced equation for reaction 1;

identifies the colour change for reaction 1;

composes a balanced equation for reaction 2;

identifies the colour change for reaction 1.

1

1

1

1

Total marks

15

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.4 B “Transition metals” Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Explain how metals are characterized as a transition element based on their electron configuration

Experiences difficulties in explaining why metals are characterized as a transition element based on their electron configuration;

Makes some mistakes in stating electron configuration/ referring to the formation of stable ions/ referring to incomplete d-subshell;

Explain how metals are characterized as a transition element based on their electron configuration;

Give two formulae of two iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states

Experiences difficulties in writing two formulae of two iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states;

Makes some mistakes in writing formulae of an iron compound/ writing another iron compound with different oxidation state;

Gives two formulae of two iron compounds in which iron has different oxidation states;

Determine differences in the physical and chemical properties of transition metals from alkali metals

Experiences difficulties in identifying differences in physical and chemical properties of transition metals from alkali metals;

Makes some mistakes in proposing a difference in physical /chemical properties;

Determine differences in physical and chemical properties of transition metals from alkali metals correctly;

Defines the term ‘complex ion’ and draw the structure of complex ion

Experiences difficulties in defining the term ‘complex ion’ /drawing the structure of complex ion;

Makes some mistakes in defining the term ‘complex ion’/ drawing the structure of complex ion;

Defines correctly the term ‘complex ion’ and draw the structure of complex ion;

Explain the role of haemoglobin and poisoning by carbon monoxide

Experiences difficulties in explaining the role of haemoglobin and poisoning by carbon monoxide;

Makes some mistakes in referring to oxygen transportation/ referring to strong bonding;

Explains the role of haemoglobin and poisoning by carbon monoxide;

Compose the reactions of copper complexes with sodium hydroxide and ammonia, and determine the colour of the solution

Experiences difficulties in composing the reactions of copper complexes with sodium hydroxide and ammonia/ determining the colour of the solution.

Makes some mistakes in composing the reactions 1/ identifying colour change1/ composing reaction 2/ identifying colour change 2.

Composes the reactions of copper complexes with sodium hydroxide and ammonia correctly and determines the colour of the solution.

Summative assessment for the unit 11.4 C “Creating new substances and materials”, 11.4D Green Chemistry

Learning objectives

11.4.2.31

11.4.2.34

11.4.2.38

11.4.1.3

Explain the importance of molecular shell and chirality for physiological activity of compounds

Explain the physical meaning of nanoparticle, nanochemistry and nanotechnology concepts

Describe the structure of carbon nanoparticles: fullerene C60, graphene, nanotubes, nanothreads, and nanofibers

Study the causes of ozone layer depletion

Assessment criteria

A learner is able to…

  • Define the term ‘nano-sized’ and explain the approaches to manufacturing nano-scale components
  • Explain the importance of chirality for physiological activity of compounds
  • Explain the structures of carbon nanoparticles and suggest the physical properties based on the structure
  • Explain the causes of ozone layer depletion

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Duration

15 minutes

Tasks

1.

The developments in nanotechnology and drug delivery over the past 20 years have been rapidly changing.

  • Suggest what does the term nano-sized means.
  • Describe the ‘bottom-up’ approach to manufacturing nano-scale components.

2.

Sometimes it is difficult to manufacture a drug containing only the one pharmacologically active stereoisomer.

Methoxetamine is a derivative of the pharmaceutical drug, ketamine.

  • On the diagram above, circle any chiral centres that are present in methoxetamine.
  • Describe possible disadvantages of producing a drug containing a mixture of several stereoisomers.

3.

Diamond, graphite, fullerene C60 and graphene are allotropes of carbon. The diagrams below show the structure of buckminsterfullerene and graphene:

  • Would you expect samples of graphene and buckminsterfullerene to be electrical conductors? Explain your answers.
  • C60 sublimes (turns directly from solid to gas) at about 800K. Diamond also sublimes but only above 3800K.
    • Explain why C60 and diamond sublime at such different temperatures.

4.

Name the type of compound that is responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer in the

atmosphere. Explain how this type of compound causes ozone depletion.

Assessment criteria

Task

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Define the term ‘nano-sized’ and explain the approaches to manufacturing nano-scale

components

1

defines the term ‘nano-sized’;

refers to the synthesis of compounds;

1

1

Explain the importance of chiralityforthe physiological activity of

compounds

2

circles all chiral centres;

explains that one isomer has a side effect;

1

1

Explain the structures of carbon nanoparticles and suggest the physical properties based on the structure

3

refers to graphene’s free electron;

explains that fullerene does not have free

electron;

refers to the giant structure in diamond;

refers to the simple covalent structure in

fullerene;

refers to the weak intermolecular forces in

fullerene;

1

1

1

1

1

Explaincausesofozone layer depletion

4

refers to the CFC’s;

refers to the formation of free radical by UV

light;

explains that free radicals attack the O3 .

1

1

1

Total marks

12

 Rubrics on the result of Summative Assessment for the unit 11.4 C “Creating new substances and materials”, 11.4D Green Chemistry Learners’ name:

Assessment criteria

Level of learning achievements

Low

Define the term ‘nano-sized’ and explain the approaches to manufacturingnano-scale components

Experiences difficulties in defining the term ‘nano-sized’/ explaining the approaches to manufacturing nano- scale components;

Makes some mistakes in defining the term ‘nano-sized’/ explaining the approaches to manufacturing nano-scale components;

Defines the term ‘nano-sized’ and explains the approaches to manufacturingnano-scale components;

Explain the importance of chirality for the physiological activity of compounds

Experiences difficulties in explaining the importance of chirality for the physiological activity of compounds.

Makes some mistakes in identifying chiralcentre/referringtoside

effect;

Explains the importance of chirality for the physiological activity of compounds.

Explain the structures of carbon nanoparticles and suggest the physical properties based on the structure

Experiences difficulties in explaining the structures of carbon nanoparticles and suggest the physical properties based on the structure;

Makes some mistakes in referring to graphene’s free electron/ referring that fullerene has no free electron/ referring to giant structure in diamond/ referring to simple structure in fullerene/ referring to intermolecular forces;

Explains properly the structures of carbon nanoparticles and suggest the physical properties based on the structure;

Explain the causes of the ozone layer depletion

Experiences difficulties in explaining the causes of ozone layer depletion.

Makes some mistakes in referring to CFC’s/ referring to the formation of free radicals/ referring to the attack

of free radicals.

Fully explains the causes of ozone layer depletion.


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