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СОР_Биология_11_ЕМН_англ


Methodological recommendations for Summative Assessment Biology

(natural science and mathematics)

Grade 11

Nur-Sultan, 2020

 Methodical recommendations (Guidelines) are created to help the teachers in planning, organizing and conducting of summative assessment of units on the subject "Biology" for 11 grade students. Guidelines are prepared on the basis of the Subject programme and curriculum.

 Tasks for summative assessment of unit will allow the teacher to determine the level of achievement of the learning objectives by the students planned for a term. In the methodological recommendations for a summative assessment tasks, assessment criteria with descriptors and marks are proposed. The possible levels of educational achievements of students (rubrics) are also described in the booklet. Tasks with descriptors and marks are given as recommendations.

 Guidelines are intended for primary school teachers, school administrators, methodologists of education departments, regional and school coordinators for criteria-based assessment and other stakeholders.

 Resources that were used (pictures, texts, video and audio materials, etc.) in preparing the guidelines are publicly available on official Internet sites.

CONTENT

TERM 1 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS

Summative assessment for the unit “11.1A Molecular biology and biochemistry”

Learning objectives

11.4.1.1

explain the interaction between the antigen and the

antibody

11.4.1.2

explain the mechanism of formation of the enzyme-

substrate complex

11.4.1.3

compare competitive and non-competitive inhibition of

enzymes

11.4.1.4

describe transcription and translation during protein

biosynthesis

11.4.1.5

explain the properties of the genetic code

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Explains the interaction between the antigen and the antibody
  • Describes the mechanism of formation of the enzyme- substrate complex
  • Notes the similarity and dissimilarity between competitive and non-competitive inhibition of enzymes
  • Depictstranscriptionandtranslationduringprotein biosynthesis
  • Describes the properties of the genetic code

Level of thinking skills

Application High order skills

Time

20 minutes

Tasks

1. During a primary immune response, the following events occur.

  • Some B-lymphocytes form plasma cells.
  • B-lymphocytes with the specific cell surface receptors divide repeatedly by mitosis. 3 Specific antibody is produced.
  • T-helper cells secrete cytokines.
  • T-helper cells identify a specific antigen.

In which order will the events occur?

A. 2 → 1 → 4 → 3 → 5

B. 2 → 4 → 3 → 1 → 5

C. 5 → 4 → 2 → 1 → 3

D. 5 → 4 → 3 → 1 → 2

2. The diagram represents an enzyme, its substrate and an enzyme/substrate complex.

Which statement explains how the substrate is able to enter the active site of the enzyme?

  • Contact between the substrate and the enzyme causes a change in the enzyme shape
  • The shape of the active site and the shape of the substrate are complementary
  • The substrate within the active site forms hydrogen bonds with amino acids
  • When the enzyme/substrate complex forms, the tertiary structure of the enzyme changes
  • Enzymes can be inhibited competitively and non-competitively.
  • State one example of:

competitive inhibitor non-competitive inhibitor

  • Compare competitive and non-competitive inhibition of enzymes by stating one similarity and

two differences in the table below

Competitive inhibition

Non-competitive inhibition

Similarity

Differences

  • Protein biosynthesis includes transcription and translation (a)(i) Define the term transcription

(ii) List the events of pre-mRNA processing

(b) The figure below is a diagram showing the formation of a polypeptide at a ribosome.

(b) With references to the figure above describe the role of tRNA molecules in translation.

  • A table below contains some of DNA codons that code for particular amino acids.

Amino acid

DNA codons

Isoleucine

ATT, ATC, ATA

Leucine

CTT, CTC, CTA, CTG, TTA, TTG

Valine

GTT, GTC, GTA, GTG

Phenylalanine

TTT, TTC

Methionine

ATG

Glycine

GGT, GGC, GGA, GGG

(a)(i) Define the term degenerate

(ii) Give one evidence from the table above that shows that genetic code is degenerate.

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Explainsthe interaction between the antigen and the

antibody

1

Determines the correct order of the events during a primary immune response;

1

Describesthe

mechanismof formationofthe enzyme-substrate complex

2

Chooses the correct statement about the ability of the substrate for entering the active site of the enzyme;

1

Notes the similarity anddissimilarity between competitive and non-competitive inhibition of enzymes

3

Gives the example of competitive inhibitor;

Gives the example of non-competitive inhibitor;

Determines similarity betweencompetitive and

non-competitive inhibition;

Determinesthefirstdifferencebetween competitive and non-competitive inhibition;

Determinestheseconddifferencebetween

competitive and non-competitive inhibition;

1

1

1

1

1

Depicts transcription and translation during protein biosynthesis

4

Gives the definition to the term transcription;

Names the first event of pre-mRNA processing;

Names the second event of pre-mRNA processing;

Names the third event of pre-mRNA processing;

Determines the role of tRNA molecules using the first reference from the figure;

Determines the role of tRNA molecules using the

second reference from the figure;

1

1

1

1

1

1

Describesthe

propertiesofthe genetic code

5

Gives the definition to the term degenerate;

Gives the evidence from the table that genetic code

is degenerate.

1

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the result of summative assessment for the unit "11.1A Molecular Biology and Biochemistry"

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Explains the interaction between the antigen and the antibody

Experiences difficulties in determining the correct order of the events during a primaryimmuneresponse

Makes mistakes in determining the correct order of the events during a primary immune response

Determines the correct order of the events during a primary immune response

Describes the mechanism of formation of the enzyme-substrate complex

Experiences difficulties in choosing the correct statement about the ability of the substrate for entering the active site of the enzyme

Makes mistakes in choosing the correct statement about the ability of the substrate for entering the active site of the

Chooses the correct statement about the ability of the substrate for entering the active site of the enzyme

Notes the similarity and dissimilarity between competitive and non- competitive inhibition of enzymes

Experiences difficulties in providing the examples of competitive, non- competitive inhibitors

Experiences difficulties in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between competitive and non-competitive inhibition

Makes mistakes in providing the examples of competitive, non- competitive inhibitors

Makes mistakes in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between competitive and non- competitive inhibition

Provides the example of competitive, non-competitive inhibitors

Determines one similarity and two differences between competitive and non-competitive inhibition

Depicts transcription and translation during protein biosynthesis

Experiences difficulties in in defining the term transcription

Makes mistakes in defining the term transcription

Gives the definition to the term transcription

Experiences difficulties in naming the first (second, third) event of pre- mRNA processing

Makes mistakes in naming the first (second, third) event of pre-mRNA processing

Names all three events of pre- mRNA processing

Experiences difficulties in determining the role of tRNA molecules using the first/ second reference from the figure

Experiences difficulties in determining the role of tRNA molecules using the first/ second reference from the figure

Determines the role of tRNA molecules using two references from the figure

Describes the properties of

the genetic code

Experiences difficulties in defining the

term degenerate

Makes mistakes in defining the term

degenerate

Gives the definition to the term

degenerate

Experiences difficulties in finding the evidence from the table

Makesmistakesinfindingthe evidence from the table

Finds the evidence from the table

Summative assessment for the unit “11.1B Nutrition”

Learning objectives

11.1.2.1

establish a relationship between the structure and

function of chloroplast

11.1.2.2

explain the processes occurring during the light phase of

photosynthesis

11.1.2.3

explain the processes occurring during the dark phase of

photosynthesis

11.1.2.4.

research carbon fixation pathways in C3 and C4 plants

11.1.2.5

investigate and explain the limiting factors of

photosynthesis

11.1.2.6

compare the features of the processes of photosynthesis

and chemosynthesis

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Determines a relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast
  • Describes the processes occurring during the light phase of photosynthesis
  • Describes the processes occurring during the dark phase of photosynthesis
  • Studies carbon fixation pathways in C3 and C4 plants
  • Studies and describes the limiting factors of photosynthesis
  • Notes the similarity and dissimilarity between the features of the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

Level of thinking skills

Application High order skills

Time

25 minutes

Task

1. The figure shows the structure of chloroplast.

Mention 2 features of how chloroplast is adapted to carry out photosynthesis.

  • In plants photosynthesis is a two stage process. Complete the table about the features of light and dark phases of photosynthesis

Features

Light phase of photosynthesis

Dark phase of photosynthesis

Location

Source of energy

Initial products

End products

  • The graph shows the rate of carbon fixation for two plants over a range of oxygen concentrations with normal carbon dioxide concentrations.

Which plant appears to be using C4 photosynthesis? Explain the reason for your conclusion.

  • The rate of photosynthesis is affected by a number of environmental factors.
  • The figure below shows the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.
  • State the limiting factor in region A of the graph.
  • Explain why there is no further increase in the rate of photosynthesis beyond point C.
  • For many plants living in temperate regions the optimum temperature for photosynthesis is approximately 25°C.

Explain why the rate of photosynthesis decreases at temperatures above 25°C.

  • Compare the features of the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis by stating one

similarity and two differences in the table below.

Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis

Similarity

Differences

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Determinesa

relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast

1

Indicates the first feature of chloroplast for

carrying out photosynthesis;

Indicates the second feature of chloroplast for

carrying out photosynthesis;

1

1

Describesthe

processes occurring during the light and darkphases of photosynthesis

2

Fills in the table the features of the light phase

of photosynthesis;

Fills in the table the features of the dark phase

of photosynthesis;

1

1

Studies carbon fixation

pathways in C3 and C4 plants

3

Determines the C4 plant on the graph;

Indicates the first reason for own conclusion;

Indicatesthesecondreasonforown

conclusion;

1

1

1

Studies and describes

the limiting factors of photosynthesis

4

Determines the limiting factor in region A of

the graph;

Provides the first argument for given problem;

Provides the second argument for given

problem;

1

1

1

Notes the similarity

anddissimilarity between the features of the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

5

Determines similarity between the processes of

photosynthesis and chemosynthesis;

Determines the first difference between the processesofphotosynthesisand

chemosynthesis;

Determines the second difference between the

processesofphotosynthesisand chemosynthesis.

1

1

1

Total

13

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the result of summative assessment for the unit “11.1B Nutrition"

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Determines a relationship between the structure and function of chloroplast

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/second feature of chloroplast for carrying out photosynthesis

Makes mistakes in indicating the first/second feature of chloroplast for carrying out photosynthesis

Indicates two features of chloroplast for carrying out photosynthesis

Describes the processes occurring during the light and dark phases of photosynthesis

Experiences difficulties in filling in the table the features of the light/dark phase of photosynthesis

Makes mistakes in filling in the table the features of the light/dark phase of photosynthesis

Fills in the table the features of the light and dark phases of photosynthesis

Studiescarbonfixation pathways in C3 and C4 plants

Experiences difficulties in determining the C4 plant on the graph

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/second reason for own conclusion

Makes mistakes in determining the C4 plant on the graph

Makes mistakes in indicating the first/second reason for own conclusion

Determines the C4 plant on the graph

Indicates two reasons for own conclusion

Studies and describes the limitingfactorsof photosynthesis

Experiences difficulties in determining the limiting factor in region A of the graph

Makes mistakes in determining the limiting factor in region A of the graph

Determines the limiting factor in region A of the graph

Experiences difficulties in providing the first/second argument for given problem

Makes mistakes in providing the first/second argument for given problem

Provides two arguments for given problem

Notes the similarity and dissimilarity between the features of the processes of photosynthesisand chemosynthesis

Experiences difficulties in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

Makes mistakes in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis

Determines one similarity and two differences between the processes ofphotosynthesisand chemosynthesis

Summative assessment for the unit “11.1C Transport of materials”

Learning objectives

11.1.3.1

explain the mechanism of translocation of substances in

plants

11.1.3.2

explain the essence of the symplastic, apoplastic,

vacuolar pathways of transport of materials

11.1.3.3

explain the mechanism of various types of transport of

substances across the cell membrane

11.1.3.4

explain the mechanism of active transport using the

example of the sodium - potassium pump

11.1.3.5

determine the role of active transport in the maintenance

of membrane potential

11.1.3.6

study the water potential of cells in solutions with

different salt concentrations

Assessment criteria

Student

  • Explain the mechanism of translocation of substances in plants
  • Describes the essence of the symplastic, apoplastic, vacuolar pathways of transport of materials
  • Describes the mechanism of various types of transport of substances across the cell membrane
  • Describes the mechanism of active transport using the example of the sodium - potassium pump
  • Outlines the role of active transport in the maintenance of membrane potential
  • Describes the water potential of cells in solutions with different salt concentrations

Level of thinking skills

Application High order skills

Time

25 minutes

Task

1. Some plant cells convert fructose and glucose into sucrose for transport from sources to sinks. Sucrose is moved into phloem sieve tubes as shown in figure below.

Use the information in figure to explain how sucrose moves:

    • into the companion cell
    • from the companion cell into the sieve tube element.
  • The statements are descriptions of how water moves across the root to the xylem vessel elements in plants.
  • Water enters the intercellular spaces.
  • Water enters the cytoplasm by osmosis.
  • Water moves from cell to cell through plasmodesmata. 4 Water moves through the cell wall.

Which statements are correct for both the apoplastic pathway the symplastic pathway?

A. 1, 2, 3 and 4

  • 1, 2 and 3 only
  • 2 and 4 only
  • 4 only
  • (a) The table below describes three examples of substances moving into or out of cells. Fill the table identifying the transport mechanism involved for each example.

Example transport

Mechanism involved

uptake of magnesium ions from a lower concentration in the soil solution to a higher concentration in the

cytoplasm of a root hair cell

release of antibodies from an active

B-lymphocyte (plasma cell)

movement of sucrose from a companion cell into a phloem sieve tube element via plasmodesmata

(b) Describe the events shown on the diagram.

  • The diagram below shows the changes in membrane potential during an action potential.

What best describes events indicated by the label X?

A

Sodium ions diffuse out of the neurons

The inside of neuron becomes more negative

B

Potassium ions diffuse out of the neurons

The inside of neuron becomes more negative

C

Potassium ions into neurons

The inside of neuron becomes more positive

D

Sodium ions diffuse into neurons

The inside of neuron becomes more positive

5 (a) Strips of plant tissue were immersed in a range of sucrose solutions of different concentrations. Their lengths were measured before immersion and after 30 minutes in the different solutions. The graph shows the ratio of initial length to final length.

Outline which concentration of sucrose solution, in mol*dm–3, has the same water potential as the cell sap before immersion.

(b) When amino acids are moved into a sink from phloem sieve tubes changes to the water potential and the volume of liquid in the phloem sieve tube element occur.

Specify what changes take place

  • to the water potential
  • the volume of liquid in the phloem sieve tube element

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Explain the mechanism

oftranslocationof substances in plants

1

Indicates the first feature of moving of sucrose into

the companion cell;

Indicates the second feature of moving of sucrose

into the companion cell;

Indicates the first feature of moving of sucrose from

the companion cell into the sieve tube element;

Indicates the second feature of moving of sucrose

from the companion cell into the sieve tube element;

1

1

1

1

Describes the essence

of the symplastic, apoplastic, vacuolar pathways of transport of materials

2

Gives correct statements for both apoplastic and

symplastic pathway;

1

Describesthe

3

Completes the table with mechanism involved for

1

mechanism of various

the first example of transport;

types of transport of

Completes the table with mechanism involved for

1

substances across the

the second example of transport;

cell membrane

Completes the table with mechanism involved for

1

Describesthe mechanism of active transport using the example of the sodium

- potassium pump

the third example of transport;

Depicts the events shown on the diagram with

numbers 1 and 2;

Depicts the events shown on the diagram with

numbers 3 and 4;

Depicts the events shown on the diagram with

1

1

1

numbers 5 and 6;

Outlines the role of

active transport in the maintenanceof membrane potential

4

Gives the best description of the events labelled X

on the graph;

1

Describesthewater

5

Indicates the sucrose solution concentration using

1

potential of cells in

the graph;

solutions with different

Determines the changes to water potential;

1

salt concentrations

Determines the changes to volume of liquid in the

1

phloem sieve tube element.

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the result of summative assessment for the unit “11.1C Transport of materials”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Explain the mechanism of translocationof substances in plants

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/second feature of moving of sucrose into the companion cell and first/second feature of moving of sucrose from the companion cell into the sieve tube element

Makes mistakes in indicating the first/second feature of moving of sucrose into the companion cell and first/second feature of moving of sucrose from the companion cell into the sieve tube element

Indicates two features of moving of sucrose into the companion cell and two features of moving of sucrose from the companion cell into the sieve tube element

Describes the essence of thesymplastic, apoplastic, vacuolar pathways of transport of materials

Experiences difficulties in finding the correct statements for both the apoplastic and symplastic pathway

Makes mistakes in finding the correct statements for both the apoplastic and symplastic pathway

Finds the correct statements for both the apoplastic and symplastic pathway

Describes the mechanism of various types of transport of substances across the cell membrane

Describes the mechanism of active transport using the example of the sodium - potassium pump

Experiences difficulties in completing the table with mechanism involved for the first/second/third example of transport

Makes mistakes in completing the table with mechanism involved for the first/second/third example of transport

Completes the table with mechanism involved for three examples of transport

Experiences difficulties in depicting the events shown on the diagram with numbers 1 and 2/3 and 4/5 and 6

Makes mistakes in depicting the events shown on the diagram with numbers 1 and 2/3 and 4/5 and 6

Depicts the events shown on the diagram with numbers 1-6

Outlines the role of active transportinthe

maintenanceof membrane potential

Experiences difficulties in in finding the best description of the events labelled X on the graph

Makes mistakes in finding the best description of the events labelled X on the graph

Finds the best description ofthe events labelled X on the graph

Experiences difficulties in indicating the sucrose solution concentration using the graph/ determines the changes to water potential/ to volume of liquid in the phloem sieve tube element

Makes mistakes in indicating the sucrose solution concentration using the graph/ determines the changes to water potential/ to volume of liquid in the phloem sieve tube element

Indicates the sucrose solution concentration using the graph/ determines the changes to water potential/ to volume of liquid in the phloem sieve tube element

TERM 2 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS

Summative assessment for the units “11.2A Coordination and regulation”, “11.2В Reproduction”, “11.2С Growth and development”

Learning objectives

11.1.7.2

explain the mechanism of the actions of hormones

11.1.7.3

investigate the effect of stimulants on plant growth

11.2.1.1

analyze a scheme of gametogenesis in humans

11.2.1.2

explainthedifferencesofspermatogenesisand

oogenesis

11.2.3.1

explain the process of specialization of stem cells and its

practical application

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Describes the mechanism of the actions of hormones
  • Studies the effect of stimulants on plant growth
  • Analyses a scheme of gametogenesis in humans
  • Distinguish between spermatogenesis and oogenesis
  • Explains the process of specialization of stem cells and its practical application

Level of thinking skills

Application

High order skills

Time

25 minutes

Task

  • The concentration of glucose in the blood is controlled by the hormones insulin and glucagon. Describe the part played by glucagon in the control of glucose in the blood.
  • (a) The table below shows the sites of production and main effects of some plant growth substances. Complete the table by writing appropriate information in the empty boxes.

Name of growthSite of productionOne main effect substance

promotes leaf fall

Ethylene

stimulates rapid cell division in plant embryos

(b)(i) Distinguish between the effects of auxins and cytokinins in regulating stem growth.

(ii) Give an example of ‘antagonism’ between plant growth substances.

3. Formation of gametes is carried out by a process called gametogenesis. Gametogenesis is of two types, spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Figure 3 below outlines the sequence of events that occur during spermatogenesis.

Figure 3

  • With reference to figure 3 above state
  • which cells are haploid
  • What are the types of cell division 1, 3 cell division 1 cell division 3
  • Write differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis in humans.

Spermatogenesis

Oogenesis

  • (a) In what way embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells?

embryonic stem cells

adult stem cells

A

totipotent

differentiated

B

differentiated

multipotent

C

pluripotent

undifferentiated

D

undifferentiated

totipotent

  • Discuss why stem cells therapy would be a good source for organ transplantations.

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Describesthe mechanism of the actions of hormones

1

Determines the first event of action of glucagon in

the control of glucose in the blood;

Determines the second event of action of glucagon

in the control of glucose in the blood;

1

1

Studies the effect of stimulants on plant growth

2

Fills empty boxes in the table for the effect of

promotion of leaf fall;

Fills empty boxes in the table for the growth

substance ethane;

Fills empty boxes in the table for the effect of

stimulation of rapid cell division in plant embryos;

Provides an example of ‘antagonism’ between plant

growth substances;

1

1

1

1

Analyses a scheme of gametogenesisin humans

3

Indicates the first haploid cell;

Indicates the second haploid cell;

Indicates the type of cell division 1;

Indicates the type of cell division 1;

1

1

1

1

Distinguish between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

4

Outlinesthefirstdifferencebetween spermatogenesis and oogenesis;

Outlinestheseconddifferencebetween

spermatogenesis and oogenesis;

1

1

Explains the process of specialization of stem cells and

its practical application

5

Outlines the difference between potency and the ability for differentiation embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells;

Provides the first argument for stem cells therapy as

a good source for organ transplantations;

Provides the second argument for stem cells therapy as a good source for organ transplantations.

1

1

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment

 for the units “11.2A Coordination and regulation”,“11.2В Reproduction”, “11.2С Growth and development” Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Describes the mechanism of the actions of hormones

Experiences difficulties in determining the first/second event of action of glucagon in the control of glucose in the blood.

Makes mistakes in determining the first/second event of action of glucagon in the control of glucose in the blood.

Determines the first/second event of action of glucagon in the control of glucose in the blood.

Studies the effect of stimulants on plant growth

Experiences difficulties in filling empty boxes in the table for the effect of promotion of leaf fall/ the growth substance ethane/ the effect of stimulation of rapid cell division in plant embryos.

Experiences difficulties in providing an example of ‘antagonism’ between plant growth substances.

Makes mistakes in filling empty boxes in the table for the effect of promotion of leaf fall/ the growth substance ethane/ the effect of stimulation of rapid cell division in plant embryos.

Makes mistakes in providing an example of ‘antagonism’ between plant growth substances.

Fills empty boxes in the table for the effect of promotion of leaf fall, the growth substance ethane, the effect of stimulation of rapid cell division in plant embryos.

Provides an example of ‘antagonism’ between plant growth substances.

Analysesaschemeof gametogenesis in humans

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/ second haploid cell, the type of cell division 1/3.

Makes mistakes in indicating the first/ second haploid cell, the type of cell division 1/3.

Indicates two haploid cell, the type of cell divisions 1, 3.

Distinguishbetween spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Experiences difficulties in outlining the first/second difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Makes mistakes in outlining the first/second difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Outlines two differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Explainstheprocessof

Experiencesdifficultiesinin

Makes mistakes in outlining the

Outlines the difference between

specialization of stem cells and

outlining the difference between

difference between potency and the

potencyandtheabilityfor

its practical application

potencyandtheabilityfor

ability for differentiation embryonic

differentiation embryonic stem

differentiation embryonic stem cells

stem cells and adult stem cells.

cells and adult stem cells.

and adult stem cells.

Experiencesdifficultiesin

Makes mistakes in providing the

Provides two arguments for stem

providing the first/second argument

first/second argument for stem cells

cells therapy as a good source for

for stem cells therapy as a good

therapy as a good source for organ

organ transplantations.

source for organ transplantations.

transplantations.

Summative assessment for the unit “11.2D Regularities of heredity and variability”

Learning objectives

11.2.4.1

find the relationship of mutations with DNA repair, DNA

recombination, DNA replication

11.2.4.2

use statistical methods to analyze the reliability of

inheritance of characteristics (χ² criteria, t-test)

11.2.4.3

discuss the significance of "Human Genome" project

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Relates mutations with DNA repair, DNA recombination, DNA replication
  • Applies statistical methods to analyze the reliability of inheritance of characteristics (χ² criteria, t-test)
  • Discusses the significance of "Human Genome" project

Level of thinking skills

Application High order skills

Time

20 минут

Task

1. The diagram below shows a repair mechanism for each type of DNA damage.

  • Base on the diagram above, which types of repair mechanism are involved when there are changes in one strand of the DNA only?
  • What kind of DNA damage does an interstrand cross link repair fix?
  • Look at the figure below and then answer the questions that follow.
    • What is a thymine dimer?
    • What could cause a thymine dimer to form?
    • If the thymine dimer is not repaired and if the strand that has the dimer is copied during replication, what would be the base sequence of the complementary strand?
  • A cross was carried out between a fly heterozygous for striped abdomen and long wings and a fly with a black abdomen and short wings. The results are shown below:

striped abdomen and long wing 86 black abdomen and long wings 87 striped abdomen and short wing 81 black abdomen and short wing 78

A chi-squared test (χ2) was carried out on these data.

    • State the null hypothesis for that experiment.
    • Complete Table 3.1.

Table 3.1

    • Calculate the value of χ2

Σ = sum of...

    • Table 3.2 shows χ2 values.

Table 3.2

χ2 ...........................................................

    • Using Table 3.2, explain what conclusions can be made about the results of the χ2 test.
  • Which of the following are likely to have benefited from the Human Genome project? 1 health care screening
  • forensic science
  • international cooperation
    • 1 and 2 only
    • 1 and 3 only
    •  2 and 3 only 1, 2 and 3

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Relates mutations with DNA repair, DNA

recombination, DNA replication

1

Indicates the first type of repair mechanism;

Indicates the second type of repair

mechanism;

Indicates the type of DNA damage;

1

1

1

Relates mutations with DNA repair, DNA

recombination, DNA replication

2

Defines the term a thymine dimer;

Determines the cause of a thymine dimer formation;

Determines the base sequence of the complementary strand;

1

1

1

Applies statistical methods to analyze the reliability of inheritance of characteristics (χ² criteria, t-test)

3

States the null hypothesis for the experiment;

Calculates data of expected number;

Calculates data of difference between

observed and expected;

Calculates data of squared difference between observed and expected;

Calculates data of squared difference

between observed and expected divided by expected;

Counts up the value of χ2;

Makes a conclusion using the first argument;

Makes a conclusion using the second

argument;

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Discusses the significance of Human Genome

project

4

Shows the correct statement (s) about benefits of Human Genome project.

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.2D Regularities of heredity and variability”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Relates mutations with DNA repair, DNA recombination, DNA replication

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/second type of repair mechanism/ the type of DNA damage.

Experiences difficulties in defining the term a thymine dimer.

Experiences difficulties in determining the cause of a thymine dimer formation/ the base sequence of the complementary strand.

Makes mistakes in indicating the first/second type of repair mechanism/ the type of DNA damage.

Makes mistakes in defining the term a thymine dimer.

Makes mistakes in determining the cause of a thymine dimer formation/ the base sequence of the complementary strand.

Indicates two types of repair mechanism and the type of DNA damage.

Defines the term a thymine dimer.

Determines the cause of a thymine dimer formation, the base sequence of the complementary strand.

Applies statistical methods to analyze the reliability of inheritance of characteristics (χ² criteria, t-test)

Experiences difficulties in stating the null hypothesis for the experiment.

Makes mistakes in stating the null hypothesis for the experiment.

States the null hypothesis for the experiment.

Experiences difficulties in calculating data of expected number/ difference between observed and expected/ squared difference between observed and expected/ squared difference between observed and expected divided by expected.

Makes mistakes in calculating data of expected number/ difference between observed and expected,/squared difference between observed and expected/ squared difference between observed and expected divided by expected.

Calculates data of expected number, difference between observed and expected, squared difference between observed and expected, squared difference between observed and expected divided by expected.

Experiences difficulties in formulating a conclusion using the first/second argument.

Makes mistakes in formulating a conclusion using the first/second argument.

Formulates a conclusion using two arguments.

Discusses the significance of "Human Genome" project

Experiences difficulties in showing the correct statement (s) about benefits of Human Genome project.

Makes mistakes in showing the correct statement (s) about benefits of Human Genome project.

Shows the correct statement (s) about benefits of Human Genome project.

TERM 3 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS

Summative assessment of the unit “11.3А Cell biology”

Learning objectives

11.4.2.1

11.4.2.2

identify and describe the main components of cells using micrographs

determine the actual cell size

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Indicates and depicts the main components of cells using micrographs
  • Calculates the actual cell size

Level of thinking skills

Application

Time

20 minutes

Task

  • The electron micrograph in figure 1 shows part of eukaryotic cell.

Figure 1

Which of the labelled organelles is a site of ATP storage and synthesis?

  • A student was presented with a photomicrograph of a cell organelle. The magnification of the photomicrograph is known.

Which calculation of the actual length of the organelle in μm is correct?

    • actual size in cm × 100 divided by the magnification
    • actual size in mm × 100 divided by the magnification
    • image size in cm × 1000 divided by the magnification
    • image size in mm × 1000 divided by the magnification
  • What would you need to do if you were only given a scale bar and asked to calculate the actual size? Demonstrate by finding the length of this stoma in figure 3 in µm. Show your working.

Figure 3

  • Figure 4 is a transmission electron micrograph of a cell from a leaf.

Figure 4

  • Use the scale bar to calculate the actual size of the image in Figure 4. Write down the formula that you will use and show your working.

formula

actual size μm

  • Name structure X and state two features and two functions of this structure.

name

feature 1

feature 2

function 1 function 2

  • Name two structures, visible in the cell in Fig. 4, that contain DNA.

1

2

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Indicates and

determines the main components of cells using micrographs

1

Determines organelle in micrograph according

given function;

1

Calculates the actual

cell size

2

Indicates the correct way of calculation of the

actual length of the organelle in μm;

1

3

Shows the measurement of the scale bar;

Shows the measurement of image size

according given section;

Counts up the actual size of the organelle;

1

1

1

Calculates the actual

cell size Indicates and

determines the main components of cells using micrographs

4

Uses the scale bar for calculation;

Shows formula for calculation;

Shows correct answer for actual size;

Identifies the structure X;

States feature 1 of the organelle;

States feature 2 of the organelle;

States function 1 of the organelle;

States function 2 of the organelle;

Name the first structure that contains DNA;

Name the second structure that contains DNA.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.3А Cell biology”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Indicates and determines the main components of cells using micrographs

Experiences difficulties in determining on micrograph organelle according given function.

Experiences difficulties in indicating the correct way of calculation of the actual length of the organelle in μm.

Makes mistakes in determining on micrograph organelle according given function.

Makes mistakes in indicating the correct way of calculation of the actual length of the organelle in μm.

Determines on micrograph organelle according given function.

Indicates the correct way of calculation of the actual length of the organelle in μm.

Calculates the actual cell size

Experiences difficulties in showing the measurement of the scale bar, image size according given section.

Experiences difficulties in counting up the actual size of the organelle.

Makes mistakes in showing the measurement of the scale bar, image size according given section.

Makes mistakes in counting up the actual size of the organelle.

Shows the measurement of the scale bar, image size according given section.

Counts up the actual size of the organelle.

Calculates the actual cell size

Experiences difficulties in using the scale bar for calculation.

Makes mistakes in using the scale bar for calculation.

Uses the scale bar for calculation.

Indicates and determines the main components of cells using micrographs

Experiences difficulties in showing formula for calculation/ correct measurement of image size.

Experiences difficulties in identifying the structure X.

Experiences difficulties in stating feature1/2, function 1/2 of the organelle.

Makes mistakes in showing formula for calculation/ correct measurement of image size.

Makes mistakes in identifying the structure X.

Makes mistakes in stating feature1/2, function 1/2 of the organelle.

Shows formula for calculation, correct measurement of image size.

Identifies the structure X.

States features 1,2, functions 1,2 of the organelle.

Experiences difficulties in naming the first, second structure that contains DNA.

Makes mistakes in naming the first, second structure that contains DNA.

Name the first, second structure that contains DNA.

Summative assessment for the unit “11.3 B Biotechnology”

Learning objectives

        • describe and explain the microbiological research stages
        • compare gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
        • explain the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA
        • explain ways to clone organisms
        • describe methods of microclonal reproduction of plants

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Depicts and explains the microbiological research stages
  • Notes similarity and dissimilarity between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
  • Describes the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA
  • Explains ways to clone organisms
  • Depicts methods of microclonal reproduction of plants

Level of thinking skills

Application High order skills

Time

20 minutes

Task

  • Aseptic technique is a series of laboratory procedures which are completed under sterile conditions to minimise contamination by microorganism. Two students investigated the growth of two different strains of bacteria in liquid broth at room temperature.

Describe two examples of aseptic technique that the students would carry out during the experiment.

1)

2)

  • Compare gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by stating one similarity and two differences in the table below.

Gram-positive bacteriaGram-negative bacteria

Similarity Differences

  • (a) Make a labelled drawing of a plasmid in the box below.

(b) Outline the functions of enzymes using in rDNA technology:

  • restriction endonuclease
  • DNA ligase
  • (a) Define the term cloning

(b) Briefly describe the types of artificial cloning

  • Gene (DNA) cloning
  • Reproductive cloning
  • Therapeutic Cloning
  • The diagram shows stages of plant micropropagation.

What part of the plant should be used as the explant?

    • apical leaf
    • apical root
    • root meristem
    • shoot meristem

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Depicts and explains the microbiological research stages

1

Describes the first example of aseptic

technique;

Describes the second example of aseptic

technique;

1

1

Notes similarity and dissimilarity between gram-positiveand gram-negative bacteria

2

Determines similarity between gram-positive

and gram-negative bacteria;

Determines the first difference between gram-

positive and gram-negative bacteria;

Determines the second difference between

gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria;

1

1

1

Describes the ways of obtaining recombinant DNA

3

Draws and labels one part of plasmid;

Draws and labels two parts of plasmid;

Draws and labels three parts of plasmid;

States the functions of the first enzyme using

in rDNA technology;

States the functions of the second enzyme

using in rDNA technology;

1

1

1

1

1

Explainswaysto clone organisms

4

Defines the term cloning;

Briefly depicts gene cloning;

Briefly depicts reproductive cloning;

Briefly depicts therapeutic cloning;

1

1

1

1

Depicts methods of microclonal

reproductionof plants

5

Identifies the part of the plant that should be used as the explant.

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.3 B Biotechnology”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Depictsandexplainsthe microbiological research stages

Experiences difficulties in describing the first and second examples of aseptic technique.

Makes mistakes in describing the first and second examples of aseptic technique.

Describes the first and second examples of aseptic technique.

Notes similarity and dissimilarity between gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria

Experiences difficulties in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Makes mistakes in determining one similarity / first (second) differences between

gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Determines one similarity and two differences between gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria.

Describesthewaysof obtaining recombinant DNA

Experiences difficulties in drawing a plasmid, labeling the first/second/third part of plasmid.

Makes mistakes in drawing a plasmid, labeling the first/second/third part plasmid.

Draws a plasmid, labels three parts of plasmid.

Experiences difficulties in stating the functions of the first/second enzyme using in rDNA technology.

Makes mistakes in stating the functions of the first/second enzyme using in rDNA technology.

States the functions of the first and second enzymes using in rDNA technology.

Explainswaystoclone organisms

Experiences difficulties in defining the term cloning.

Experiences difficulties in depicting gene cloning/ reproductive cloning/ therapeutic cloning.

Makes mistakes in defining the term cloning.

Makes mistakes in in depicting gene cloning/ reproductive cloning/ therapeutic cloning.

Defines the term cloning.

Depicts gene cloning, reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning.

Experiences difficulties in identifying the part of the plant that should be used as the explant.

Makes mistakes in identifying the part of the plant that should be used as the explant.

Identifies the part of the plant that should be used as the explant.

Summative assessment for the unit “11.3C Biomedicine and bioinformatics”

Learning objectives

11.4.4.1

explain the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on the

human body

11.4.4.2

explain the importance of epigenetics in the study of gene

regulation mechanisms that do not affect the genes sequence

11.4.4.3

describe the role of bioinformatics

11.4.4.4

explain the meaning of the IVF method

11.4.4.5

explain the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and

treatment of diseases

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Describes the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on the human body
  • Explains the importance of epigenetics in the study of gene regulation mechanisms that do not affect the genes sequence
  • Depicts the role of bioinformatics
  • Explains the meaning of the IVF method
  • Describes the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases

Level of thinking skills

Knowledge and comprehension Application

Time

20 minutes

Tasks

1. Describe the effect of electromagnetic waves on the human organ systems. (a)Nervous system

(b) Cardiovascular system

  • Explain the molecular basis of epigenetics
  • Outline two ways of application of bioinformatics.

1)

2)

  • Figure 4 shows some of the steps involved in IVF (in-vitro fertilization).

Figure 4

  • Explain how egg production is stimulated at step 1.
  • Following step 3 in Figure 4, the sperm sample is placed in a solution containing various nutrients and other substances, for up to one hour, before being added to the eggs.

Explain why this is done.

  • Figure 5 is a flow chart outlining the steps in the production of monoclonal antibody.

Figure 5

    • State what is being injected into the mouse in step 1.
    • Explain why several weeks, rather than several days, separates step 1 and step 2.
    • State one feature of the myeloma mouse cells, used in step 3, that is essential for this production process.
    • Name the fused cells formed in step 4.
    • Suggest why step 6 is necessary.

(b) Monoclonal antibodies used as a treatment need to be given more than once. Repeated treatment can cause side effects to the person or can become less effective. Suggest why repeated treatment with monoclonal antibodies may have these effects.

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Describes the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on the human body

1

Depicts the effect of electromagnetic waves

on nervous system;

Depicts the effect of electromagnetic waves on cardiovascular system;

1

1

Explainsthe

importanceof epigenetics in the study of gene regulation mechanisms that do not affect the genes sequence

2

Explains the molecular basis of epigenetics;

1

Depictstheroleof bioinformatics

3

Names the first way of application of

bioinformatics;

Names the second way of application of

bioinformatics;

1

1

Explains the meaning of the IVF method

4

Indicates the first feature of egg production

stimulation;

Indicates the second feature of egg

production stimulation;

Provides the first argument why the sperm

sample is placed in a solution with nutrients;

Provides the second argument why the sperm sample is placed in a solution with

nutrients;

1

1

1

1

Describes the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases

5

Indicates the substance injected into the

mouse;

Provides the argument why several weeks are

needed between steps 1 and 2;

Indicates the feature of the myeloma mouse

cells;

Names the fused cells;

Provides the first argument why step 6 is

necessary;

Provides the second argument why step 6 is

necessary;

Proposes why repeated treatment with

monoclonal antibodies may have less effect.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.3C Biomedicine and bioinformatics”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Describes the effects of electromagnetic and sound waves on the human body

Experiences difficulties in depicting the effect of electromagnetic waves on nervous/cardiovascular system.

Makes mistakes in depicting the effect of electromagnetic waves on nervous/cardiovascular system.

Depicts the effect of electromagnetic waves on nervous and cardiovascular systems.

Explains the importance of epigenetics in the study of generegulation mechanisms that do not affect the genes sequence

Experiences difficulties in explaining the molecular basis of epigenetics.

 Makes mistakes in explaining the molecular basis of epigenetics.

Explains the molecular basis of epigenetics.

Depictstheroleof bioinformatics

Experiences difficulties in naming first/second way of application of bioinformatics.

Makes mistakes in naming the first/second way of application of bioinformatics.

Names two ways of application of bioinformatics.

Explains the meaning of the IVF method

Experiences difficulties in indicating the first/second feature of egg production stimulation

 Makes mistakes in indicating the first/second feature of egg production stimulation.

Indicates two features of egg production stimulation.

 Experiences difficulties in providing the first/second argument why the sperm sample is placed in a solution with nutrients.

Makes mistakes in providing the first/second argument why the sperm sample is placed in a solution with nutrients.

Provides two arguments why the sperm sample is placed in a solution with nutrients.

Describes the use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases

Experiences difficulties in indicating the substance injected into the mouse.

Experiences difficulties in providing the argument why several weeks are needed between steps 1 and 2.

Experiences difficulties in indicating the feature of the myeloma mouse cells.

Experiences difficulties in naming the fused cells.

Experiences difficulties in providing the first/second argument why step 6 is necessary.

Makes mistakes in indicating the substance injected into the mouse.

Makes mistakes in providing the argument why several weeks are needed between steps 1 and 2.

Makes mistakes in indicating the feature of the myeloma mouse cells.

Makes mistakes in naming the fused cells.

Makes mistakes in providing the first/second argument why step 6 is necessary.

Indicates the substance injected into the mouse.

Provides the argument why several weeks are needed between steps 1 and 2.

Indicates the feature of the myeloma mouse cells.

Names the fused cells.

Provides two arguments why step 6 is necessary.

Experiences difficulties in proposing why repeated treatment with monoclonal antibodies may have less effect.

Makes mistakes in proposing why repeated treatment with monoclonal antibodies may have less effect.

Proposes why repeated treatment with monoclonal antibodies may have less effect.

TERM 4 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASKS

Summative assessment for the unit “11.4A Biosphere, ecosystem, population”

Learning objectives

11.3.1.1

explain the rules of the ecological pyramid

11.3.1.2

create schemes of trophic levels in ecosystems

11.3.1.3

establish the relationship between species diversity and

ecosystem resilience

11.3.1.4

research the state of the ecosystem of your region using

statistical analysis methods (t- test, χ2-criterion)

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Explains the rules of the ecological pyramid
  • Makes schemes of trophic levels in ecosystems
  • Notes the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem resilience
  • Explore the state of the ecosystem of your region using statistical analysis methods (t- test, χ2-criterion)

Level of thinking skills

Application

High order skills

Time

25 minutes

Task

  • In the spruce forest ecosystem, as in the lake ecosystem, the biomass of herbivorous animals exceeds the biomass of predators.

Explain why it happens.

  • Moose is a large herbivore that is found in Kazakhstan in the forests of the floodplain of Zhaiyk river and in the east of the country. Feeds on young trees shoots.

A population of moose has been studied by ecologists for a long time. The animals’ only predator is the wolf. A population of wolves has changed in numbers over the years.

    • (i) Sketch a scheme of trophic levels for the organisms in the passage above.

(ii) Label trophic levels.

  • Complete the sentence: “A large variety of species in the ecosystem, a variety of food chains, a balanced circulation of substances is the basis of …”
    • A distribution of species in other ecosystems
    • B fluctuations in population numbers
    • C sustainable ecosystem development
    • D the emergence of new species
  • Orientation of Isopods in Response to Moisture is shown in the figure 4. Behavior chambers (choice chambers) were set up so that one side was moist and one side was dry (using filter paper cut to the size of a choice chamber). Five isopods were placed on each side of the chamber (total of 10).

Figure 4

(a)Null hypothesis: (b)Alternative hypothesis:

(c) Data Analysis:

Calculate the value of chi square using the given formula.

Where, O=observed value, E = expected value.

(d)

  • Calculate the value of chi square
  • Calculate the degrees of freedom
  • Make a conclusion:

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Explains the rules of the ecological pyramid

1

Provides reference to ecological pyramid;

Provides reference to loosing of biomass;

1

1

Makes schemes of trophic levels in ecosystems

2

Draws a scheme of trophic levels;

Labels the first trophic level;

Labels the second trophic level;

Labels the third trophic level;

1

1

1

1

Notes the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem resilience

3

Chooses the correct completion for the sentence;

1

Explore the state of the ecosystem of your region using statistical analysis methods (t- test, χ2-criterion)

4

States null hypothesis;

States alternative hypothesis;

Calculates total and average for the first

table for both categories;

Calculates data for the second table for wet

category;

Calculates data for the second table for dry

category;

Calculates the value of chi square;

Calculates the degrees of freedom;

Makes a conclusion.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total

15

54

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.4A Biosphere, ecosystem, population”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Explains the rules of the ecological pyramid

Experiences difficultiesin providing reference to ecological pyramid/ loosing of biomass.

Makes mistakes inproviding reference to ecological pyramid/ loosing of biomass.

Provides references to ecological pyramid and loosing of biomass.

Makes schemes of trophic levels in ecosystems

 Experiences difficultiesin drawing a scheme of trophic levels.

Experiences difficultiesin labeling the first/second/third trophic level.

Makes mistakes in drawing a scheme of trophic levels.

Makes mistakes inlabeling the first/second/third trophic level.

Draws a scheme of trophic levels.

Labels three trophic levels.

Notes the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem resilience

Experiences difficulties in choosing the correct completion for the sentence.

Makes mistakes in choosing the correct completion for the sentence.

Chooses the correct completion for the sentence.

Explore the state of the ecosystem of your region using statistical analysis methods (t- test, χ2-criterion)

Experiences difficulties in stating null/ alternative hypothesis.

Makes mistakes in stating null/ alternative hypothesis.

States null and alternative hypothesis.

Experiences difficulties in calculating total and average for the first table for both categories/ data for the second table for

Makes mistakes in calculating total and average for the first table for both categories/ data for the second table for wet/dry category,/ the

Calculates total and average for the first table for both categories, data for the second table for wet and dry categories,

wet/dry category,/ the value of chi square/ the degrees of freedom.

value of chi square/ the degrees of freedom.

the value of chi square, the degrees of freedom.

Experiences difficulties in making a conclusion.

Makes mistakes in making a conclusion.

Makes a conclusion.

Summative assessment for the unit “11.4B Ecology and the impact of human activities on the environment”

Learning objectives

11.3.2.1

11.3.2.2

predict the effects of possible global warming

study and suggest possible solutions to environmental problems in Kazakhstan

Assessment criteria

Learner

  • Describes the effects of possible global warming
  • Depicts and proposes possible solutions to environmental problems in Kazakhstan

Level of thinking skills

Application

High order skills

Time

20 minutes

Tasks

1. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is currently 385 ppm (parts per million). Variations in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can be studied using ice-cores. An ice-core record covering the last 400 000 years has been obtained from Vostok in the Antarctic. The graph below shows the carbon dioxide concentrations that were measured at different depths in the ice. Atmospheric temperatures are also shown on the graph. These were deduced from ratios of oxygen isotopes. The upper line on the graph shows CO2 concentrations and the lower line shows temperature.

(a )(i) State the highest carbon dioxide concentration shown in the graph

(ii) State the highest temperature shown in the graph

(b) Using the data in the graph, deduce the relationship between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.

  • There has been a significant increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere during the last fifty years.
    • Suggest two reasons for this increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

1

2

(b) Suggest one effect of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration on organisms in a pond. Include in your answer the reason for the effect and the type of organisms that are affected.

  • According to scientific research the area of Arctic ice decreased over the past fifty years.State not less than

two consequences of Arctic ice area changing.

  • (a) Give two examples of environmental problems in Kazakhstan.

(b) Describe the causes, effects and possible solutions to one of the environmental problem in Kazakhstan.

Causes:

Effects:

Possible solutions:

Assessment criteria

 Task number

Descriptor

A learner

Mark

Describes the effects of possible global warming

1

Indicates the highest carbon dioxide concentration shown on the graph;

Indicates the highest temperature shown on the graph;

Concludes the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature;

1

1

1

2

Proposes the first reason for increasing in

atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration;

Proposes the second reason for increasing in

atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration;

Proposes the effect on organisms in a pond;

Specifies the reason for the effect;

Specifies the type of organisms that are affected;

1

1

1

1

1

3

Outlines the first consequence of Arctic ice area

changing;

Outlines the second consequence of Arctic ice area

changing;

1

1

Depicts and proposes possible solutions to environmental problems in Kazakhstan

4

Provides the first example of environmental

problems in Kazakhstan;

Provides the second example of environmental

problems in Kazakhstan;

Describes the causes to the environmental problem in Kazakhstan;

Describes the effects to the environmental problem

in Kazakhstan;

Describes the possible solutions to the

environmental problem in Kazakhstan.

1

1

1

1

1

Total

15

Rubrics for providing information to parents on the results of summative assessment for the unit “11.4B Ecology and the impact of human activities on the environment”

Learner’s name

Assessment criteria

Level of academic achievements

Low

Describes the effects of possible global warming

Experiences difficulties in indicating the highest carbon dioxide concentration/temperature shown on the graph.

Experiences difficulties in concluding the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.

Experiences difficulties in proposing the first/ second reason for increasing in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

Makes mistakes in indicating the highest carbon dioxide concentration/temperature shown on the graph.

Makes mistakes in concluding the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.

Makes mistakes in proposing the first/ second reason for increasing in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

Indicates the highest carbon dioxide concentration/temperature shown on the graph.

Concludes the link between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature.

Proposes the first/ second reason for increasing in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration.

Experiences difficulties in specifying the reason for the effect

/ the type of organisms that are affected.

Makes mistakes in specifying the reason for the effect / the type of organisms that are affected.

Specifies the reason for the effect / the type of organisms that are affected.

Experiences difficulties in outlining the first/second consequence of Arctic ice area changing.

Makes mistakes in outlining the first/second consequence of Arctic ice area changing.

Outlines the first/second consequence of Arctic ice area changing.

Depicts and proposes possible solutions to environmental problems in Kazakhstan

Experiences difficulties in providing the first/second example of environmental problems in Kazakhstan.

Makes mistakes in providing the first/second example of environmental problems in Kazakhstan.

Provides the first/second example of environmental problems in Kazakhstan.

Experiences difficulties in describing the effects/the possible solutions to the environmental problem in Kazakhstan.

 Makes mistakes in describing the effects/the possible solutions to the environmental problem in Kazakhstan.

Describes the effects/the possible solutions to the environmental problem in Kazakhstan.


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